c. 500 BC
The Gospel of Buddha
          The "Gospel of Buddha" is a 19th century compilation from a 
variety of Buddhist texts by Paul Carus. It is modelled on the New 
Testament as was very widely read. It was even recommended by 
Ceylonese Buddhist leaders as a teaching tool for Buddhist 
          This version originates from the Internet, via World Wide 
Web, at gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/11/
          REJOICE at the glad tidings! The Buddha our Lord has found 
the root of all evil; he has shown us the way of salvation. The 
Buddha dispels the illusions of our mind and redeems us from the 
terror of death.
          The Buddha, our Lord, brings comfort to the weary and 
sorrow-laden; he restores peace to those who are broken down under 
the burden of life. He gives courage to the weak when they would 
fain give up self-reliance and hope. You who suffer from the 
tribulations of life, you who have to struggle and endure, you who 
yearn for a life of truth, rejoice at the glad tidings! There is balm for 
the wounded, and there is bread for the hungry. There is water for 
the thirsty, and there is hope for the despairing. There is light for 
those in darkness, and there is inexhaustible blessing for the upright.
          Heal your wounds, you wounded, and eat your fill, you hungry. 
Rest, you weary, and you who are thirsty quench your thirst. Look 
up to the light, you who sit in darkness; be full of good cheer, you 
who are forlorn.
          Trust in truth, You who love the truth, for the kingdom of 
righteousness is founded upon earth. The darkness of error is 
dispelled by the light of truth. We can see our way and take firm and 
certain steps. The Buddha, our Lord, has revealed the truth. The 
truth cures our diseases and redeems us from perdition; the truth 
strengthens us in life and in death; the truth alone can conquer the 
evils of error. Rejoice at the glad tidings!
          LOOK about and contemplate life! Everything is transient and 
nothing endures. There is birth and death, growth and decay; there is 
combination and separation. The glory of the world is like a flower: 
it stands in full bloom in the morning and fades in the heat of the 
          Wherever you look, there is a rushing and a struggling, and an 
eager pursuit of pleasure. There is a panic flight from pain and 
death, and hot are the flames of burning desires. The world is Vanity 
Fair, full of changes and transformations. All is Samsara, the 
turning Wheel of Existence.
          Is there nothing permanent in the world? Is there in the 
universal turmoil no resting-place where our troubled heart can find 
peace? Is there nothing everlasting? Oh, that we could have 
cessation of anxiety, that our burning desires would be 
extinguished! When shall the mind become tranquil and composed?
          The Buddha, our Lord, was grieved at the ills of life. He saw 
the vanity of worldly happiness and sought salvation in the one 
thing that will not fade or perish, but will abide for ever and ever.
          You who long for life, learn that immortality is hidden in 
transiency. You who wish for happiness without the sting of regret, 
lead a life of righteousness. You who yearn for riches, receive 
treasures that are eternal. Truth is wealth, and a life of truth is 
          All compounds will be dissolved again, but the verities which 
determine all combinations and separations as laws of nature endure 
for ever and aye. Bodies fall to dust, but the truths of the mind will 
not be destroyed.
          Truth knows neither birth nor death; it has no beginning and no 
end. Welcome the truth. The truth is the immortal part of mind. 
Establish the truth in your mind, for the truth is the image of the 
eternal; it portrays the immutable; it reveals the everlasting; the truth 
gives unto mortals the boon of immortality.
          The Buddha has proclaimed the truth; let the truth of the 
Buddha dwell in your hearts. Extinguish in yourselves every desire 
that antagonizes the Buddha, and in the perfection of your spiritual 
growth you will become like unto him. That of your heart which 
cannot or will not develop into Buddha must perish, for it is mere 
illusion and unreal; it is the source of your error; it is the cause of 
your misery.
          You attain to immortality by filling your minds with truth. 
Therefore, become like unto vessels fit to receive the Master's 
words. Cleanse yourselves of evil and sanctify your lives. There is 
no other way of reaching truth.
          Learn to distinguish between Self and Truth. Self is the cause 
of selfishness and the source of evil; truth cleaves to no self; it is 
universal and leads to justice and righteousness. Self, that which 
seems to those who love their self as their being, is not the eternal, 
the everlasting, the imperishable. Seek not self, but seek the truth.
          If we liberate our souls from our petty selves, wish no ill to 
others, and become clear as a crystal diamond reflecting the light of 
truth, what a radiant picture will appear in us mirroring things as 
they are, without the admixture of burning desires, without the 
distortion of erroneous illusion, without the agitation of clinging and 
          Yet you love self and will not abandon self-love. So be it, but 
then, verily, you should learn to distinguish between the false self 
and the true self. The ego with all its egotism is the false self. It is 
an unreal illusion and a perishable combination. He only who 
identifies his self with the truth will attain Nirvana; and he who has 
entered Nirvana has attained Buddhahood; he has acquired the 
highest good; he has become eternal and immortal.
          All compound things shall be dissolved again, worlds will 
break to pieces and our individualities will be scattered; but the 
words of Buddha will remain for ever.
          The extinction of self is salvation; the annihilation of self is the 
condition of enlightenment; the blotting out of self is Nirvana.
          Happy is he who has ceased to live for pleasure and rests in the 
truth. Verily his composure and tranquility of mind are the highest 
          Let us take our refuge in the Buddha, for he has found the 
everlasting in the transient. Let us take our refuge in that which is 
the immutable in the changes of existence. Let us take our refuge in 
the truth that is established through the enlightenment of the 
Buddha. Let us take our refuge in the community of those who seek 
the truth and endeavor to live in the truth.
          THE things of the world and its inhabitants are subject to 
change. They are combinations of elements that existed before, and 
all living creatures are what their past actions made them; for the 
law of cause and effect is uniform and without exception.
          But in the changing things there is a constancy of law, and 
when the law is seen there is truth. The truth lies hidden in Samsara 
as the permanent in its changes.
          Truth desires to appear; truth longs to become conscious; truth 
strives to know itself.
          There is truth in the stone, for the stone is here; and no power 
in the world, no god, no man, no demon, can destroy its existence. 
But the stone has no consciousness. There is truth in the plant and 
its life can expand; the plant grows and blossoms and bears fruit. Its 
beauty is marvelous, but it has no consciousness. There is truth in 
the animal; it moves about and perceives its surroundings; it 
distinguishes and learns to choose. There is consciousness, but it is 
not yet the consciousness of Truth. It is a consciousness of self only.
          The consciousness of self dims the eyes of the mind and hides 
the truth. It is the origin of error, it is the source of illusion, it is the 
germ of evil. Self begets selfishness. There is no evil but what flows 
from self. There is no wrong but what is done by the assertion of 
self. Self is the beginning of all hatred, of iniquity and slander, of 
impudence and indecency, of theft and robbery, of oppression and 
bloodshed. Self is Mara, the tempter, the evil-doer, the creator of 
mischief. Self entices with pleasures. Self promises a fairy's 
paradise. Self is the veil of Maya, the enchanter. But the pleasures 
of self are unreal, its paradisian labyrinth is the road to misery, and 
its fading beauty kindles the flames of desires that never can be 
          Who shall deliver us from the power of self? Who shall save us 
from misery? Who shall restore us to a life of blessedness?
          There is misery in the world of Samsara; there is much misery 
and pain. But greater than all the misery is the bliss of truth. Truth 
gives peace to the yearning mind; it conquers error; it quenches the 
flames of desires; it leads to Nirvana. Blessed is he who has found 
the peace of Nirvana. He is at rest in the struggles and tribulations 
of life; he is above all changes; he is above birth and death; he 
remains unaffected by the evils of life.
          Blessed is he who has found enlightenment. He conquers, 
although he may be wounded; he is glorious and happy, although he 
may suffer; he is strong, although he may break down under the 
burden of his work; he is immortal, although he will die. The 
essence of his being is purity and goodness.
          Blessed is he who has attained the sacred state of Buddhahood, 
for he is fit to work out the salvation of his fellow beings. The truth 
has taken its abode in him. Perfect wisdom illumines his 
understanding, and righteousness ensouls the purpose of all his 
actions. The truth is a living power for good, indestructible and 
invincible! Work the truth out in your mind, and spread it among 
mankind, for truth alone is the savior from evil and misery. The 
Buddha has found the truth and the truth has been proclaimed by the 
Buddha! Blessed be the Buddha!
          There was in Kapilavatthu a Sakya king, strong of purpose and 
reverenced by all men, a descendant of the Okkakas, who call 
themselves Gotama, and his name was Suddhodana or Pure-Rice. 
His wife Mayadevi was beautiful as the water-lily and pure in mind 
as the lotus. As the Queen of Heaven, she lived on earth, untainted 
by desire, and immaculate.
          The king, her husband, honored her in her holiness, and the 
spirit of truth, glorious and strong in his wisdom like unto a white 
elephant, descended upon her. When she knew that the hour of 
motherhood was near, she asked the king to send her home to her 
parents; and Suddhodana, anxious about his wife and the child she 
would bear him, willingly granted her request.
          At Lumbini there is a beautiful grove, and when Mayadevi 
passed through it the trees were one mass of fragrant flowers and 
many birds were warbling in their branches. The Queen, wishing to 
stroll through the shady walks, left her golden palanquin, and, when 
she reached the giant sala tree in the midst of the grove, felt that her 
hour had come. She took hold of a branch. Her attendants hung a 
curtain about her and retired. When the pain of travail came upon 
her, four pure-minded angels of the great Brahma held out a golden 
net to receive the babe, who came forth from her right side like the 
rising sun bright and perfect.
          The Brahma-angels took the child and placing him before the 
mother said: "Rejoice, O queen, a mighty son has been born unto 
          At her couch stood an aged woman imploring the heavens to 
bless the child. All the worlds were flooded with light. The blind 
received their sight by longing to see the coming glory of the Lord; 
the deaf and dumb spoke with one another of the good omens 
indicating the birth of the Buddha to be. The crooked became 
straight; the lame walked. All prisoners were freed from their chains 
and the fires of all the hells were extinguished.
          No clouds gathered in the skies and the polluted streams 
became clear, whilst celestial music rang through the air and the 
angels rejoiced with gladness. With no selfish or partial joy but for 
the sake of the law they rejoiced, for creation engulfed in the ocean 
of pain was now to obtain release. The cries of beasts were hushed; 
all malevolent beings received a loving heart, and peace reigned on 
earth. Mara, the evil one, alone was grieved and rejoiced not.
          The Naga kings, earnestly desiring to show their reverence for 
most excellent law, as they had paid honor to former Buddhas, now 
went to greet the Bodhisattva. They scattered before him mandara 
flowers, rejoicing with heartfelt joy to pay their religious homage.
          The royal father, pondering the meaning of these signs, was 
now full of joy and now sore distressed. The queen mother, 
beholding her child and the commotion which his birth created, felt 
in her timorous heart the pangs of doubt.
          Now there was at that time in a grove near Lumbini Asita, a 
rishi, leading the life of a hermit. He was a Brahman of dignified 
mien, famed not only for wisdom and scholarship, but also for his 
skill in the interpretation of signs. And the king invited him to see 
the royal babe.
          The seer, beholding the prince, wept and sighed deeply. And 
when the king saw the tears of Asita he became alarmed and asked: 
"Why has the sight of my son caused thee grief and pain?"
          But Asita's heart rejoiced, and, knowing the king's mind to be 
perplexed, he addressed him, saying: "The king, like the moon when 
full, should feel great joy, for he has begotten a wondrously noble 
son. I do not worship Brahma, but I worship this child; and the gods 
in the temples will descend from their places of honor to adore him. 
Banish all anxiety and doubt. The spiritual omens manifested 
indicate that the child now born will bring deliverance to the whole 
          "Recollecting that I myself am old, on that account I could not 
hold my tears; for now my end is coming on and I shall not see the 
glory of this babe. For this son of thine will rule the world. The 
wheel of empire will come to him. He will either be a king of kings 
to govern all the lands of the earth, or verily will become a Buddha. 
He is born for the sake of everything that lives. His pure teaching 
will be like the shore that receives the shipwrecked. His power of 
meditation will be like a cool lake; and all creatures parched with 
the drought of lust may freely drink thereof. On the fire of 
covetousness he will cause the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the 
rain of the law may extinguish it. The heavy gates of despondency 
will he open, and give deliverance to all creatures ensnared in the 
self-entwined meshes of folly and ignorance. The king of the law 
has come forth to rescue from bondage all the poor, the miserable, 
the helpless."
          When the royal parents heard Asita's words they rejoiced in 
their hearts and named their new-born infant Siddhattha, that is he 
who has accomplished his purpose."
          And the queen said to her sister, Pajapati: "A mother who has 
borne a future Buddha will never give birth to another child. I shall 
soon leave this world, my husband, the king, and Siddhattha, my 
child. When I am gone, be thou a mother to him." And Pajapati wept 
and promised.
          When the queen had departed from the living, Pajapati took the 
boy Siddhattha and reared him. And as the light of the moon 
increases little by little, so the royal child grew from day to day in 
mind and in body; and truthfulness and love resided in his heart. 
When a year had passed Suddhodana the king made Pajapati his 
queen and there was never a better stepmother than she.
          WHEN Siddhattha had grown to youth, his father desired to 
see him married, and he sent to all his kinsfolk, commanding them 
to bring their princesses that the prince might select one of them as 
his wife.
          But the kinsfolk replied and said: "The prince is young and 
delicate; nor has he learned any of the sciences. He would not be 
able to maintain our daughter, and should there be war he would be 
unable to cope with the enemy."
          The prince was not boisterous, but pensive in his nature. He 
loved to stay under the great jambu-tree in the garden of his father, 
and, observing the ways of the world, gave himself up to meditation. 
And the prince said to his father: "Invite our kinsfolk that they may 
see me and put my strength to the test." And his father did as his son 
bade him.
          When the kinsfolk came, and the people of the city 
Kapilavatthu had assembled to test the prowess and scholarship of 
the prince, he proved himself manly in all the exercises both of the 
body and of the mind, and there was no rival among the youths and 
men of India who could surpass him in any test, bodily or mental. 
He replied to all the questions of the sages; but when he questioned 
them, even the wisest among them were silenced.
          Then Siddhattha chose himself a wife. He selected his cousin 
Yasodhara, the gentle daughter of the king of Koli. In their wedlock 
was born a son whom they named Rahula which means "fetter" or 
"tie," and King Suddhodana, glad that an heir was born to his son, 
said: "The prince having begotten a son, will love him as I love the 
prince. This will be a strong tie to bind Siddhattha's heart to the 
interests of the world, and the kingdom of the Sakyas will remain 
under the scepter of my descendants."
          With no selfish aim, but regarding his child and the people at 
large, Siddhattha, the prince, attended to his religious duties, bathing 
his body in the holy Ganges and cleansing his heart in the waters of 
the law. Even as men desire to give happiness to their children, so 
did he long to give peace to the world.
          THE palace which the king had given to the prince was 
resplendent with all the luxuries of India; for the king was anxious 
to see his son happy. All sorrowful sights, all misery, and all 
knowledge of misery were kept away from Siddhattha, for the king 
desired that no troubles should come nigh him; he should not know 
that there was evil in the world.
          But as the chained elephant longs for the wilds of the jungles, 
so the prince was eager to see the world, and he asked his father, the 
king, for permission to do so. And Suddhodana ordered a jewel-
fronted chariot with four stately horses to be held ready, and 
commanded the roads to be adorned where his son would pass.
          The houses of the city were decorated with curtains and 
banners, and spectators arranged themselves on either side, eagerly 
gazing at the heir to the throne. Thus Siddhattha rode with Channa, 
his charioteer, through the streets of the city, and into a country 
watered by rivulets and covered with pleasant trees.
          There by the wayside they met an old man with bent frame, 
wrinkled face and sorrowful brow, and the prince asked the 
charioteer: "Who is this? His head is white, his eyes are bleared, and 
his body is withered. He can barely support himself on his staff."
          The charioteer, much embarrassed, hardly dared speak the 
truth. He said: "These are the symptoms of old age. This same man 
was once a suckling child, and as a youth full of sportive life; but 
now, as years have passed away, his beauty is gone and the strength 
of his life is wasted."
          Siddhattha was greatly affected by the words of the charioteer, 
and he sighed because of the pain of old age. "What joy or pleasure 
can men take," he thought to himself, when they know they must 
soon wither and pine away!"
          And lo! while they were passing on, a sick man appeared on 
the way-side, gasping for breath, his body disfigured, convulsed and 
groaning with pain. The prince asked his charioteer: "What kind of 
man is this?" And the charioteer replied and said: "This man is sick. 
The four elements of his body are confused and out of order. We are 
all subject to such conditions: the poor and the rich, the ignorant and 
the wise, all creatures that have bodies are liable to the same 
          And Siddhattha was still more moved. All pleasures appeared 
stale to him, and he loathed the joys of life.
          The charioteer sped the horses on to escape the dreary sight, 
when suddenly they were stopped in their fiery course. Four persons 
passed by, carrying a corpse; and the prince, shuddering at the sight 
of a lifeless body, asked the charioteer: "What is this they carry? 
There are streamers and flower garlands; but the men that follow are 
overwhelmed with grief!"
          The charioteer replied: "This is a dead man: his body is stark; 
his life is gone; his thoughts are still; his family and the friends who 
loved him now carry the corpse to the grave." And the prince was 
full of awe and terror: "Is this the only dead man, he asked, or does 
the world contain other instances?"
          With a heavy heart the charioteer replied: "All over the world 
it is the same. He who begins life must end it. There is no escape 
from death."
          With bated breath and stammering accents the prince 
exclaimed: "O worldly men! How fatal is your delusion! Inevitably 
your body will crumble to dust, yet carelessly, unheedingly, ye live 
on." The charioteer observing the deep impression these sad sights 
had made on the prince, turned his horses and drove back to the city.
          When they passed by the palace of the nobility, Kisa Gotami, a 
young princess and niece of the king, saw Siddhattha in his 
manliness and beauty, and, observing the thoughtfulness of his 
countenance, said: "Happy the father that begot thee, happy the 
mother that nursed thee, happy the wife that calls husband this lord 
so glorious."
          The prince hearing this greeting, said: "Happy are they that 
have found deliverance. Longing for peace of mind, I shall seek the 
bliss of Nirvana."
          Then asked Kisa Gotami: "How is Nirvana attained?" The 
prince paused, and to him whose mind was estranged from wrong 
the answer came: "When the fire of lust is gone out, then Nirvana is 
gained; when the fires of hatred and delusion are gone out, then 
Nirvana is gained; when the troubles of mind, arising from blind 
credulity, and all other evils have ceased, then Nirvana is gained!"
          Siddhattha handed her his precious pearl necklace as a reward 
for the wisdom she had inspired in him, and having returned home 
looked with disdain upon the treasures of his palace.
          His wife welcomed him and entreated him to tell her the cause 
of his grief. He said: "I see everywhere the impression of change; 
therefore, my heart is heavy. Men grow old, sicken, and die. That is 
enough to take away the zest of life."
          The king, his father, hearing that the prince had become 
estranged from pleasure, was greatly overcome with sorrow and like 
a sword it pierced his heart.
          IT was night. The prince found no rest on his soft pillow; he 
arose and went out into the garden. "Alas!" he cried "all the world is 
full of darkness and ignorance; there is no one who knows how to 
cure the ills of existence." And he groaned with pain.
          Siddhattha sat down beneath the great jambu-tree and gave 
himself to thought, pondering on life and death and the evils of 
decay. Concentrating his mind he became free from confusion. All 
low desires vanished from his heart and perfect tranquility came 
over him.
          In this state of ecstasy he saw with his mental eye all the 
misery and sorrow of the world; he saw the pains of pleasure and 
the inevitable certainty of death that hovers over every being; yet 
men are not awakened to the truth. And a deep compassion seized 
his heart.
          While the prince was pondering on the problem of evil, he 
beheld with his mind's eye under the jambu tree a lofty figure 
endowed with majesty, calm and dignified. "Whence comest thou, 
and who mayst thou be asked the prince.
          In reply the vision said: "I am a samana. Troubled at the 
thought of old age, disease, and death I have left my home to seek 
the path of salvation. All things hasten to decay; only the truth 
abideth forever. Everything changes, and there is no permanency; 
yet the words of the Buddhas are immutable. I long for the 
happiness that does not decay; the treasure that will never perish; 
the life that knows of no beginning and no end. Therefore, I have 
destroyed all worldly thought. I have retired into an unfrequented 
dell to live in solitude; and, begging for food, I devote myself to the 
one thing needful.
          Siddhattha asked: "Can peace be gained in this world of 
unrest? I am struck with the emptiness of pleasure and have become 
disgusted with lust. All oppresses me, and existence itself seems 
          The samana replied: "Where heat is, there is also a possibility 
of cold; creatures subject to pain possess the faculty of pleasure; the 
origin of evil indicates that good can be developed. For these things 
are correlatives. Thus where there is much suffering, there will be 
much bliss, if thou but open thine eyes to behold it. Just as a man 
who has fallen into a heap of filth ought to seek the great pond of 
water covered with lotuses, which is near by: even so seek thou for 
the great deathless lake of Nirvana to wash off the defilement of 
wrong. If the lake is not sought, it is not the fault of the lake. Even 
so when there is a blessed road leading the man held fast by wrong 
to the salvation of Nirvana, if the road is not walked upon, it is not 
the fault of the road, but of the person. And when a man who is 
oppressed with sickness, there being a physician who can heal him, 
does not avail himself of the physician's help, that is not the fault of 
the physician. Even so when a man oppressed by the malady of 
wrong-doing does not seek the spiritual guide of enlightenment, that 
is no fault of the evil-destroying guide."
          The prince listened to the noble words of his visitor and said: 
"Thou bringest good tidings, for now I know that my purpose will 
be accomplished. My father advises me to enjoy life and to 
undertake worldly duties, such as will bring honor to me and to our 
house. He tells me that I am too young still, that my pulse beats too 
full to lead a religious life."
          The venerable figure shook his head and replied: "Thou 
shouldst know that for seeking a religious life no time can be 
          A thrill of joy passed through Siddhattha's heart. "Now is the 
time to seek religion," he said; "now is the time to sever all ties that 
would prevent me from attaining perfect enlightenment; now is the 
time to wander into homelessness and, leading a mendicant's life, to 
find the path of deliverance."
          The celestial messenger heard the resolution of Siddhattha with 
approval. "Now, indeed he added, is the time to seek religion. Go, 
Siddhattha, and accomplish thy purpose. For thou art Bodhisatta, the 
Buddha-elect; thou art destined to enlighten the world. Thou art the 
Tathagata, the great master, for thou wilt fulfill all righteousness 
and be Dharmaraja, the king of truth. Thou art Bhagavat, the 
Blessed One, for thou art called upon to become the savior and 
redeemer of the world. Fulfill thou the perfection of truth. Though 
the thunderbolt descend upon thy head, yield thou never to the 
allurements that beguile men from the path of truth. As the sun at all 
seasons pursues his own course, nor ever goes on another, even so if 
thou forsake not the straight path of righteousness, thou shalt 
become a Buddha. Persevere in thy quest and thou shalt find what 
thou seekest. Pursue thy aim unswervingly and thou shalt gain the 
prize. Struggle earnestly and thou shalt conquer. The benediction of 
all deities, of all saints of all that seek light is upon thee, and 
heavenly wisdom guides thy steps. Thou shalt be the Buddha, our 
Master, and our Lord; thou shalt enlighten the world and save 
mankind from perdition.
          Having thus spoken, the vision vanished, and Siddhattha's 
heart was filled with peace. He said to himself: "I have awakened to 
the truth and I am resolved to accomplish my purpose. I will sever 
all the ties that bind me to the world, and I will go out from my 
home to seek the way of salvation. The Buddhas are beings whose 
words cannot fail: there is no departure from truth in their speech. 
For as the fall of a stone thrown into the air, as the death of a 
mortal, as the sunrise at dawn, as the lion's roar when he leaves his 
lair, as the delivery of a woman with child, as all these things are 
sure and certain-even so the word of the Buddhas is sure and cannot 
fail. Verily I shall become a Buddha."
          The prince returned to the bedroom of his wife to take a last 
farewell glance at those whom he dearly loved above all the 
treasures of the earth. He longed to take the infant once more into 
his arms and kiss him with a parting kiss. But the child lay in the 
arms of his mother, and the prince could not lift him without 
awakening both. There Siddhattha stood gazing at his beautiful wife 
and his beloved son, and his heart grieved. The pain of parting 
overcame him powerfully. Although his mind was determined, so 
that nothing, be it good or evil, could shake his resolution, the tears 
flowed freely from his eyes, and it was beyond his power to check 
their stream. But the prince tore himself away with a manly heart, 
suppressing his feelings but not extinguishing his memory.
          The Bodhisattva mounted his noble steed Kanthaka, and when 
he left the palace, Mara stood in the gate and stopped him: "Depart 
not, O my Lord," exclaimed Mara. "In seven days from now the 
wheel of empire will appear, and will make thee sovereign over the 
four continents and the two thousand adjacent islands. Therefore, 
stay, my Lord."
          The Bodhisattva replied: "Well do I know that the wheel of 
empire will appear to me; but it is not sovereignty that I desire. I 
will become a Buddha and make all the world shout for joy."
          Thus Siddhattha, the prince, renounced power and worldly 
pleasures, gave up his kingdom, severed all ties, and went into 
homelessness. He rode out into the silent night, accompanied only 
by his faithful charioteer Channa. Darkness lay upon the earth, but 
the stars shone brightly in the heavens.
          SIDDHATTHA had cut his waving hair and had exchanged his 
royal robe for a mean dress of the color of the ground. Having sent 
home Channa, the charioteer, together with the noble steed 
Kanthaka, to King Suddhodana to bear him the message that the 
prince had left the world, the Bodhisattva walked along on the 
highroad with a beggar's bowl in his hand.
          Yet the majesty of his mind was ill-concealed under the 
poverty of his appearance. His erect gait betrayed his royal birth and 
his eyes beamed with a fervid zeal for truth. The beauty of his youth 
was transfigured by holiness and surrounded his head like a halo. 
All the people who saw this unusual sight gazed at him in wonder. 
Those who were in haste arrested their steps and looked back; and 
there was no one who did not pay him homage.
          Having entered the city of Rajagaha, the prince went from 
house to house silently waiting till the people offered him food. 
Wherever the Blessed One came, the people gave him what they 
had; they bowed before him in humility and were filled with 
gratitude because he condescended to approach their homes. Old 
and young people were moved and said: "This is a noble muni! His 
approach is bliss. What a great joy for us!"
          And King Bimbisara, noticing the commotion in the city, 
inquired the cause of it, and when he learned the news sent one of 
his attendants to observe the stranger. Having heard that the muni 
must be a Sakya and of noble family, and that he had retired to the 
bank of a flowing river in the woods to eat the food in his bowl, the 
king was moved in his heart; he donned his royal robe, placed his 
golden crown upon his head and went out in the company of aged 
and wise counselors to meet his mysterious guest.
          The king found the muni of the Sakya race seated under a tree. 
Contemplating the composure of his face and the gentleness of his 
deportment, Bimbisara greeted him reverently and said: "O samana, 
thy hands are fit to grasp the reins of an empire and should not hold 
a beggar's bowl. I am sorry to see thee wasting thy youth. Believing 
that thou art of royal descent, I invite thee to join me in the 
government of my country and share my royal power. Desire for 
power is becoming to the noble-minded, and wealth should not be 
despised. To grow rich and lose religion is not true gain. But he who 
possesses all three, power, wealth, and religion, enjoying them in 
discretion and with wisdom, him I call a great master."
          The great Sakyamuni lifted his eyes and replied: "Thou art 
known, O king, to be liberal and religious, and thy words are 
prudent. A kind man who makes good use of wealth is rightly said 
to possess a great treasure; but the miser who hoards up his riches 
will have no profit. Charity is rich in returns; charity is the greatest 
wealth, for though it scatters, it brings no repentance.
          "I have severed all ties because I seek deliverance. How is it 
possible for me to return to the world? He who seeks religious truth, 
which is the highest treasure of all, must leave behind all that can 
concern him or draw away his attention, and must be bent upon that 
one goal alone. He must free his soul from covetousness and lust, 
and also from the desire for power.
          "Indulge in lust but a little, and lust like a child will grow. 
Wield worldly power and you will be burdened with cares. Better 
than sovereignty over the earth, better than living in heaven, better 
than lordship over all the worlds, is the fruit of holiness. The 
Bodhisattva has recognized the illusory nature of wealth and will 
not take poison as food. Will a fish that has been baited still covet 
the hook, or an escaped bird love the net? Would a rabbit rescued 
from the serpent's mouth go back to be devoured? Would a man who 
has burnt his hand with a torch take up the torch after he had 
dropped it to the earth? Would a blind man who has recovered his 
sight desire to spoil his eyes again?
          "The sick man suffering from fever seeks for a cooling 
medicine. Shall we advise him to drink that which will increase the 
fever? Shall we quench a fire by heaping fuel upon it?
          "I pray thee, pity me not. Rather pity those who are burdened 
with the cares of royalty and the worry of great riches. They enjoy 
them in fear and trembling, for they are constantly threatened with a 
loss of those boons on whose possession their hearts are set, and 
when they die they cannot take along either their gold or the kingly 
          "My heart hankers after no vulgar profit, so I have put away 
my royal inheritance and prefer to be free from the burdens of life. 
Therefore, try not to entangle me in new relationships and duties, 
nor hinder me from completing the work I have begun. I regret to 
leave thee. But I will go to the sages who can teach me religion and 
so find the path on which we can escape evil.
          "May thy country enjoy peace and prosperity, and may wisdom 
be shed upon thy rule like the brightness of the noon-day sun. May 
thy royal power be strong and may righteousness be the scepter in 
thine hand."
          The king, clasping his hands with reverence, bowed down 
before Sakyamuni and said: "Mayest thou obtain that which thou 
seekest, and when thou hast obtained it, come back, I pray thee, and 
receive me as thy disciple." The Bodhisattva parted from the king in 
friendship and goodwill, and purposed in his heart to grant his 
          ALARA and Uddaka were renowned as teachers among the 
Brahmans, and there was no one in those days who surpassed them 
in learning and philosophical knowledge. The Bodhisattva went to 
them and sat at their feet. He listened to their doctrines of the atman 
or self, which is the ego of the mind and the doer of all doings. He 
learned their views of the transmigration of souls and of the law of 
karma; how the souls of bad men had to suffer by being reborn in 
men of low caste, in animals, or in hell, while those who purified 
themselves by libation, by sacrifices, and by self-mortification 
would become kings, or Brahmans, or devas, so as to rise higher and 
higher in the grades of existence. He studied their incantations and 
offerings and the methods by which they attained deliverance of the 
ego from material existence in states of ecstasy.
          Alara said: "What is that self which perceives the actions of 
the five roots of mind, touch, smell, taste, sight, and hearing? What 
is that which is active in the two ways of motion, in the hands and in 
the feet? The problem of the soul appears in the expressions 'I say,' 
'I know and perceive,' 'I come,' and 'I go' or 'I will stay here.' Thy 
soul is not thy body; it is not thy eye, not thy ear, not thy nose, not 
thy tongue, nor is it thy mind. The I is the one who feels the touch in 
thy body. The I is the smeller in the nose, the taster in the tongue, 
the seer in the eye, the hearer in the ear, and the thinker in the mind. 
The I moves thy hands and thy feet. The I is thy soul. Doubt in the 
existence of the soul is irreligious, and without discerning this truth 
there is no way of salvation. Deep speculation will easily involve 
the mind; it leads to confusion and unbelief; but a purification of the 
soul leads to the way of escape. True deliverance is reached by 
removing from the crowd and leading a hermit's life, depending 
entirely on alms for food. Putting away all desire and clearly 
recognizing the non-existence of matter, we reach a state of perfect 
emptiness. Here we find the condition of immaterial life. As the 
munja grass when freed from its horny case, as a sword when drawn 
from its scabbard, or as the wild bird escaped from its prison, so the 
ego liberating itself from all limitations, finds perfect release. This 
is true deliverance, but those only who will have deep faith will 
          The Bodhisattva found no satisfaction in these teachings. He 
replied: "People are in bondage, because they have not yet removed 
the idea of the ego. The thing and its quality are different in our 
thought, but not in reality. Heat is different from fire in our thought, 
but you cannot remove heat from fire in reality. You say that you 
can remove the qualities and leave the thing, but if you think your 
theory to the end, you will find that this is not so.
          "Is not man an organism of many aggregates? Are we not 
composed of various attributes? Man consists of the material form, 
of sensation, of thought, of dispositions, and, lastly, of 
understanding. That which men call the ego when they say 'I am' is 
not an entity behind the attributes; it originates by their co-
operation. There is mind; there is sensation and thought, and there is 
truth; and truth is mind when it walks in the path of righteousness. 
But there is no separate ego-soul outside or behind the thought of 
man. He who believes the ego is a distinct being has no correct 
conception. The very search for the atman is wrong; it is a wrong 
start and it will lead you in a false direction.
          "How much confusion of thought comes from our interest in 
self, and from our vanity when thinking 'I am so great,' or 'I have 
done this wonderful deed?' The thought of thine ego stands between 
thy rational nature and truth; banish it, and then wilt thou see things 
as they are. He who thinks correctly will rid himself of ignorance 
and acquire wisdom. The ideas 'I am' and 'I shall be' or 'I shall not 
be' do not occur to a clear thinker.
          "Moreover, if our ego remains, how can we attain true 
deliverance? If the ego is to be reborn in any of the three worlds, be 
it in hell, upon earth, or be it even in heaven, we shall meet again 
and again the same inevitable doom of sorrow. We shall remain 
chained to the wheel of individuality and shall be implicated in 
egotism and wrong. All combination is subject to separation, and we 
cannot escape birth, disease, old age, and death. Is this a final 
          Said Uddaka: "Consider the unity of things. Things are not 
their parts, yet they exist. The members and organs of thy body are 
not thine ego, but thine ego possesses all these parts. What, for 
instance, is the Ganges? Is the sand the Ganges? Is the water the 
Ganges? Is the hither bank the Ganges? Is the hither bank the 
Ganges? Is the farther bank the Ganges? The Ganges is a mighty 
river and it possesses all these several qualities. Exactly so is our 
          But the Bodhisattva replied: "Not so, sir! If we remove the 
water, the sand, the hither bank and the farther bank where can we 
find any Ganges? In the same way I observe the activities of man in 
their harmonious union, but there is no ground for an ego outside its 
          The Brahman sage, however, insisted on the existence of the 
ego, saying: "The ego is the doer of our deeds. How can there be 
karma without a self as its performer? Do we not see around us the 
effects of karma? What makes men different in character, station, 
possessions, and fate? It is their karma, and karma includes merit 
and demerit. The transmigration of the soul is subject to its karma. 
We inherit from former existences the evil effects of our evil deeds 
and the good effects of our good deeds. If that were not so, how 
could we be different?'
          The Tathagata meditated deeply on the problems of 
transmigration and karma, and found the truth that lies in them. 
"The doctrine of karma, he said, is undeniable, but the theory of the 
ego has no foundation. Like everything else in nature, the life of 
man is subject to the law of cause and effect. The present reaps 
what the past has sown, and the future is the product of the present. 
But there is no evidence of the existence of an immutable ego-being, 
of a self which remains the same and migrates from body to body. 
There is rebirth but no transmigration.
          "Is not this individuality of mine a combination, material as 
well as mental? Is it not made up of qualities that sprang into being 
by a gradual evolution? The five roots of sense perception in this 
organism have come from ancestors who performed these functions. 
The ideas which I think, came to me partly from others who thought 
them, and partly they rise from combinations of the ideas in my own 
mind. Those who have used the same sense-organs, and have 
thought the same ideas before I was composed into this individuality 
of mine, are my previous existences; they are my ancestors as much 
as the I of yesterday is the father of the I of today, and the karma of 
my past deeds affects the fate of my present existence.
          "Supposing there were an atman that performs the actions of 
the senses then if the door of sight were torn down and the eye 
plucked out, that atman would be able to peep through the larger 
aperture and see the forms of its surroundings better and more 
clearly than before. It would be able to hear sounds better if the ears 
were torn away; smell better if the nose were cut off; taste better if 
the tongue were pulled out; and feel better if the body were 
          "I observe the preservation and transmission of character; I 
perceive the truth of karma, but see no atman whom your doctrine 
makes the doer of your deeds. There is rebirth without the 
transmigration of a self. For this atman, this self, this ego in the 'I 
say' and in the 'I will' is an illusion. If this self were a reality, how 
could there be an escape from selfhood? The terror of hell would be 
infinite, and no release could be granted. The evils of existence 
would not be due to our ignorance and wrong-doing, but would 
constitute the very nature of our being."
          Then the Bodhisattva went to the priests officiating in the 
temples. But the gentle mind of the Sakyamuni was offended at the 
unnecessary cruelty performed on the altars of the gods. He said: 
"Ignorance only can make these men prepare festivals and hold vast 
meetings for sacrifices. Far better to revere the truth than try to 
appease the gods by shedding blood. What love can a man possess 
who believes that the destruction of life will atone for evil deeds? 
Can a new wrong expiate old wrongs? And can the slaughter of an 
innocent victim blot out the evil deeds of mankind? This is 
practicing religion by the neglect of moral conduct. Purify your 
hearts and cease to kill; that is true religion. Rituals have no 
efficacy; prayers are vain repetitions; and incantations have no 
saving power. But to abandon covetousness and lust, to become free 
from evil passions, and to give up all hatred and ill-will, that is the 
right sacrifice and the true worship."
          THE Bodhisattva went in search of a better system and came 
to a settlement of five bhikkhus in the jungle of Uruvela; and when 
the Blessed One saw the life of those five men, virtuously keeping 
in check their senses, subduing their passions, and practicing austere 
self-discipline, he admired their earnestness and joined their 
company. With holy zeal and a strong heart, the Sakyamuni gave 
himself up to meditative thought and a rigorous mortification of the 
body. Whereas the five bhikkhus were severe, the Sakyamuni was 
severer still, and so they revered him, their junior, as their master.
          So the Bodhisattva continued for six years patiently torturing 
himself and suppressing the wants of nature. He trained his body 
and exercised his mind in the modes of the most rigorous ascetic 
life. At last, he ate each day one hemp grain only, seeking to cross 
the ocean of birth and death and to arrive at the shore of deliverance.
          And when the Bodhisattva was ahungered, lo! Mara, the Evil 
One, approached him and said: "Thou art emaciated from fasts, and 
death is near. What good is thy exertion? Deign to live, and thou 
wilt be able to do good work." But the Sakyamuni made reply: "O 
thou friend of the indolent, thou wicked one; for what purpose hast 
thou come? Let the flesh waste away, if but the mind becomes more 
tranquil and attention more steadfast. What is life in this world? 
Death in battle is better to me than that I should live defeated."
          And Mara withdrew, saying: "For seven years I have followed 
the Blessed One step by step, but I have found no fault in the 
          The Bodhisattva was shrunken and attenuated, and his body 
was like a withered branch; but the fame of his holiness spread in 
the surrounding countries, and people came from great distances to 
see him and receive his blessing. However, the Holy One was not 
satisfied. Seeking true wisdom he did not find it, and he came to the 
conclusion that mortification would not extinguish desire nor afford 
enlightenment in ecstatic contemplation.
          Seated beneath a jambu-tree, he considered the state of his 
mind and the fruits of his mortification. His body had become 
weaker, nor had his fasts advanced him in his search for salvation, 
and therefore when he saw that it was not the right path, he 
proposed to abandon it. He went to bathe in the Neranjara River, but 
when he strove to leave the water he could not rise on account of his 
weakness. Then espying the branch of a tree and taking hold of it, 
he raised himself and left the stream. But while returning to his 
abode, he staggered and lay as though dead.
          There was a chief herdsman living near the grove whose eldest 
daughter was called Nanda; and Nanda happened to pass by the spot 
where the Blessed One had swooned, and bowing down before him 
she offered him rice-milk and he accepted the gift. When he had 
partaken of the rice-milk all his limbs were refreshed, his mind 
became clear again, and he was strong to receive the highest 
          After this occurrence, the Bodhisattva again took some food. 
His disciples, having witnessed the scene of Nanda and observing 
the change in his mode of living, were filled with suspicion. They 
feared that Siddhattha's religious zeal was flagging and that he 
whom they had hitherto revered as their Master had become 
oblivious of his high purpose.
          When the Bodhisattva saw the bhikkhus turning away from 
him, he felt sorry for their lack of confidence, and was aware of the 
loneliness of his life. Suppressing his grief he wandered on alone, 
and his disciples said, "Siddhattha leaves us to seek a more pleasant 
          THE Holy One directed his steps to that blessed Bodhitree 
beneath whose shade he was to accomplish his search. As he 
walked, the earth shook and a brilliant light transfigured the world. 
When he sat down the heavens resounded with joy and all living 
beings were filled with good cheer. Mara alone, lord of the five 
desires, bringer of death and enemy of truth, was grieved and 
rejoiced not. With his three daughters, Tanha, Raga and Arati, the 
tempters, and with his host of evil demons, he went to the place 
where the great samana sat. But Sakyamuni heeded him not. Mara 
uttered fear-inspiring threats and raised a whirlwind so that the skies 
were darkened and the ocean roared and trembled.
          But the Blessed One under the Bodhi-tree remained calm and 
feared not. The Enlightened One knew that no harm could befall 
          The three daughters of Mara tempted the Bodhisattva, but he 
paid no attention to them, and when Mara saw that he could kindle 
no desire in the heart of the victorious samana, he ordered all the 
evil spirits at his command to attack him and overawe the great 
muni. But the Blessed One watched them as one would watch the 
harmless games of children. All the fierce hatred of the evil spirits 
was of no avail. The flames of hell became wholesome breezes of 
perfume, and the angry thunderbolts were changed into lotus-
          When Mara saw this, he fled away with his army from the 
Bodhi-tree, whilst from above a rain of heavenly flowers fell, and 
voices of good spirits were heard: "Behold the great muni! his heart 
unmoved by hatred. The wicked Mara's host 'gainst him did not 
prevail. Pure is he and wise, loving and full of mercy. As the rays of 
the sun drown the darkness of the world, so he who perseveres in his 
search will find the truth and the truth will enlighten him."  
          THE Bodhisattva, having put Mara to flight, gave himself up 
to meditation. All the miseries of the world, the evils produced by 
evil deeds and the sufferings arising therefrom, passed before his 
mental eye, and he thought:
          "Surely if living creatures saw the results of all their evil 
deeds, they would turn away from them in disgust. But selfhood 
blinds them, and they cling to their obnoxious desires. They crave 
pleasure for themselves and they cause pain to others; when death 
destroys their individuality, they find no peace; their thirst for 
existence abides and their selfhood reappears in new births. Thus 
they continue to move in the coil and can find no escape from the 
hell of their own making. And how empty are their pleasures, how 
vain are their endeavors! Hollow like the plantain-tree and without 
contents like the bubble. The world is full of evil and sorrow, 
because it is full of lust. Men go astray because they think that 
delusion is better than truth. Rather than truth they follow error, 
which is pleasant to look at in the beginning but in the end causes 
anxiety, tribulation, and misery."
          And the Bodhisattva began to expound the Dharma. The 
Dharma is the truth. The Dharma is the sacred law. The Dharma is 
religion. The Dharma alone can deliver us from error, from wrong 
and from sorrow.
          Pondering on the origin of birth and death, the Enlightened 
One recognized that ignorance was the root of all evil; and these are 
the links in the development of life, called the twelve nidanas: In the 
beginning there is existence blind and without knowledge; and in 
this sea of ignorance there are stirrings formative and organizing. 
From stirrings, formative and organizing, rises awareness or 
feelings. Feelings beget organisms that live as individual beings. 
These organisms develop the six fields, that is, the five senses and 
the mind. The six fields come in contact with things. Contact begets 
sensation. Sensation creates the thirst of individualized being. The 
thirst of being creates a cleaving to things. The cleaving produces 
the growth and continuation of selfhood. Selfhood continues in 
renewed birth. The renewed births of selfhood are the causes of 
sufferings, old age, sickness, and death. They produce lamentation, 
anxiety, and despair.
          The cause of all sorrow lies at the very beginning; it is hidden 
in the ignorance from which life grows. Remove ignorance and you 
will destroy the wrong desires that rise from ignorance; destroy 
these desires and you will wipe out the wrong perception that rises 
from them. Destroy wrong perception and there is an end of errors 
in individualized beings. Destroy the errors in individualized beings 
and the illusions of the six fields will disappear. Destroy illusions 
and the contact with things will cease to beget misconception. 
Destroy misconception and you do away with thirst. Destroy thirst 
and you will be free of all morbid cleaving. Remove the cleaving 
and you destroy the selfishness of selfhood. If the selfishness of 
selfhood is destroyed you will be above birth, old age, disease, and 
death, and you will escape all suffering.
          The Enlightened One saw the four noble truths which point out 
the path that leads to Nirvana or the extinction of self: The first 
noble truth is the existence of sorrow. The second noble truth is the 
cause of suffering. The third noble truth is the cessation of sorrow. 
The fourth noble truth is the eightfold path that leads to the 
cessation of sorrow.
          This is the Dharma. This is the truth. This is religion. And the 
Enlightened One uttered this stanza:
          "Through many births I sought in vain
          The Builder of this House of Pain.
          Now, Builder, You are plain to see,
          And from this House at last I'm free;
          I burst the rafters, roof and wall,
          And dwell in the Peace beyond them all."
          There is self and there is truth. Where self is, truth is not. 
Where truth is, self is not. Self is the fleeting error of samsara; it is 
individual separateness and that egotism which begets envy and 
hatred. Self is the yearning for pleasure and the lust after vanity. 
Truth is the correct comprehension of things; it is the permanent and 
everlasting, the real in all existence, the bliss of righteousness.
          The existence of self is an illusion, and here is no wrong in this 
world, no vice, no evil, except what flows from the assertion of self. 
The attainment of truth is possible only when self is recognized as 
an illusion. Righteousness can be practiced only when we have freed 
our mind from passions of egotism. Perfect peace can dwell only 
where all vanity has disappeared.
          Blessed is he who has understood the Dharma. Blessed is he 
who does no harm to his fellow-beings. Blessed is he who 
overcomes wrong and is free from passion. To the highest bliss has 
he attained who has conquered all selfishness and vanity. He has 
become the Buddha, the Perfect One.
          THE Blessed One tarried in solitude seven times seven days, 
enjoying the bliss of emancipation. At that time Tapussa and 
Bhallika, two merchants, came traveling on the road near by, and 
when they saw the great samana, majestic and full of peace, they 
approached him respectfully and offered him rice cakes and honey.
          This was the first food that the Enlightened One ate after he 
attained Buddhahood.
          And the Buddha addressed them and pointed out to them the 
way of salvation. The two merchants, seeing the holiness of the 
conqueror of Mara, bowed down in reverence and said: "We take 
our refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One and in the Dharma." Tapussa 
and Bhallika were the first that became followers of the Buddha and 
they were lay disciples.
          THE Blessed One having attained Buddhahood while resting 
under the shepherd's Nigrodha tree on the banks of the river 
Neranjara, pronounced this solemn utterance:
          "How sure his pathway in this wood,
          Who follows truth's unchanging call!
          How blessed, to be kind and good,
          And practice self-restraint in all!
          How light, from passion to be free,
          And sensual joys to let go by!
          And yet his greatest bliss will be
          When he has quelled the pride of 'I'.
          "I have recognized the deepest truth, which is sublime and 
peace-giving' but difficult to understand; for most men move in a 
sphere of worldly interests and find their delight in worldly desires. 
The worldling will not understand the doctrine, for to him there is 
happiness in selfhood only, and the bliss that lies in a complete 
surrender to truth is unintelligible to him. He will call resignation 
what to the enlightened mind is the purest joy. He will see 
annihilation where the perfected one finds immortality. He will 
regard as death what the conqueror of self knows to be life 
everlasting. The truth remains hidden from him who is in the 
bondage of hate and desire. Nirvana remains incomprehensible and 
mysterious to the vulgar whose minds are beclouded with worldly 
interests. Should I preach the doctrine and mankind not comprehend 
it, it would bring me only fatigue and trouble."
          Mara, the Evil One, on hearing the words of the Blessed 
Buddha, approached and said: "Be greeted, thou Holy One. Thou 
hast attained the highest bliss and it is time for thee to enter into the 
final Nirvana."
          Then Brahma Sahampati descended from the heavens and, 
having worshiped the Blessed One, said: "Alas! the world must 
perish, should the Holy One, the Tathagata, decide not to teach the 
Dharma. Be merciful to those that struggle; have compassion upon 
the sufferers; pity the creatures who are hopelessly entangled in the 
snares of sorrow. There are some beings that are almost free from 
the dust of worldliness. If they hear not the doctrine preached, they 
will be lost. But if they hear it, they will believe and be saved."
          The Blessed One, full of compassion, looked with the eye of a 
Buddha upon all sentient creatures, and he saw among them beings 
whose minds were but scarcely covered by the dust of worldliness, 
who were of good disposition and easy to instruct. He saw some 
who were conscious of the dangers of lust and wrong doing. And the 
Blessed One said to Brahma Sahampati: "Wide open be the door of 
immortality to all who have ears to hear. May they receive the 
Dharma with faith."
          Then the Blessed One turned to Mara, saying: "I shall not pass 
into the final Nirvana, O Evil One, until there be not only brethren 
and sisters of an Order, but also lay disciples of both sexes, who 
shall have become true hearers, wise, well trained, ready and 
learned, versed in the scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and lesser 
duties, correct in life, walking according to the precepts-until they, 
having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to give 
information to others concerning it, preach it, make it known, 
establish it, open it, minutely explain it, and make it clear-until they, 
when others start vain doctrines, shall be able to vanquish and refute 
them, and so to spread the wonderworking truth abroad. I shall not 
die until the pure religion of truth shall have become successful, 
prosperous, widespread, and popular in all its full extent-until, in a 
word, it shall have been well proclaimed among men!"
          Then Brahma Sahampati understood that the Blessed One had 
granted his request and would preach the doctrine.
          Now the Blessed One thought: "To whom shall I preach the 
doctrine first? My old teachers are dead. They would have received 
the good news with joy. But my five disciples are still alive. I shall 
go to them, and to them shall I first proclaim the gospel of 
          At that time the five bhikkhus dwelt in the Deer Park at 
Benares, and the Blessed One rose and journeyed to their abode, not 
thinking of their unkindness in having left him at a time when he 
was most in need of their sympathy and help, but mindful only of 
the services which they had ministered unto him, and pitying them 
for the austerities which they practiced in vain.
          Upaka, a young Brahman and a Jain, a former acquaintance of 
Siddhattha, saw the Blessed One while he journeyed to Benares, 
and, amazed at the majesty and sublime joyfulness of his 
appearance, said to him: "Thy countenance, my friend, is serene; 
thine eyes are bright and indicate purity and blessedness."
          The holy Buddha replied: "I have obtained deliverance by the 
extinction of self. My body is chastened, my mind is free from 
desire, and the deepest truth has taken abode in my heart. I have 
obtained Nirvana, and this is the reason that my countenance is 
serene and my eyes are bright. I now desire to found the kingdom of 
truth upon earth, to give light to those who are enshrouded in 
darkness and to open the gate of deathlessness."
          Upaka replied: "Thou professest then, friend, to be Jina, the 
conqueror of the world, the absolute one and the holy one.
          The Blessed One said: "Jinas are all those who have conquered 
self and the passions of self; those alone are victorious who control 
their minds and abstain from evil. Therefore, Upaka, I am the Jina."
          Upaka shook his head. "Venerable Gotama, he said, "thy way 
lies yonder," and taking another road he went away.
          ON seeing their old teacher approach, the five bhikkus agreed 
among themselves not to salute him, nor to address him as a master, 
but by his name only. "For," so they said, "he has broken his vow 
and has abandoned holiness. He is no bhikkhu, but Gotama, and 
Gotama has become a man who lives in abundance and indulges in 
the pleasures of worldliness." But when the Blessed One 
approached in a dignified manner, they involuntarily rose from their 
seats and greeted him in spite of their resolution. Still they called 
him by his name and addressed him as "friend Gotama."
          When they had thus received the Blessed One, he said: "Do not 
call the Tathagata by his name nor address him as 'friend,' for he is 
the Buddha, the Holy One. The Buddha looks with a kind heart 
equally on all living beings, and they therefore call him 'Father.' To 
disrespect a father is wrong; to despise him, is wicked. The 
Tathagata, the Buddha continued, does not seek salvation in 
austerities, but neither does he for that reason indulge in worldly 
pleasures, nor live in abundance. The Tathagata has found the 
middle path.
          "There are two extremes, O bhikkhus, which the man who has 
given up the world ought not to follow-the habitual practice, on the 
one hand, of self-indulgence which is unworthy, vain and fit only 
for the worldly-minded and the habitual practice, on the other hand, 
of self-mortification, which is painful, useless and unprofitable.
          "Neither abstinence from fish and flesh, nor going naked, nor 
shaving the head, nor wearing matted hair, nor dressing in a rough 
garment, nor covering oneself with dirt, nor sacrificing to Agni, will 
cleanse a man who is not free from delusions. Reading the Vedas, 
making offerings to priests, or sacrifices to the gods, self-
mortification by heat or cold and many such penances performed for 
the sake of immortality, these do not cleanse the man who is not free 
from delusions. Anger, drunkenness, obstinacy, bigotry, deception, 
envy, self-praise, disparaging others, superciliousness and evil 
intentions constitute uncleanness; not verily the eating of flesh.
          "A middle path, O bhikkhus avoiding the two extremes, has 
been discovered by the Tathagata-a path which opens the eyes, and 
bestows understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher 
wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana! What is that middle path, 
O bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the 
Tathagata-that path which opens the eyes, and bestows 
understanding, which leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, 
to full enlightenment, to Nirvana? Let me teach you, O bhikkhus, 
the middle path, which keeps aloof from both extremes. By 
suffering, the emaciated devotee produces confusion and sickly 
thoughts in his mind. Mortification is not conducive even to worldly 
knowledge; how much less to a triumph over the senses!
          "He who fills his lamp with water will not dispel the darkness, 
and he who tries to light a fire with rotten wood will fail. And how 
can any one be free from self by leading a wretched life, if he does 
not succeed in quenching the fires of lust, if he still hankers after 
either worldly or heavenly pleasures? But he in whom self has 
become extinct is free from lust; he will desire neither worldly nor 
heavenly pleasures, and the satisfaction of his natural wants will not 
defile him. However, let him be moderate, let him eat and drink 
according to the need of the body.
          "Sensuality is enervating; the self-indulgent man is a slave to 
his passions, and pleasure-seeking is degrading and vulgar. But to 
satisfy the necessities of life is not evil. To keep the body in good 
health is a duty, for otherwise we shall not be able to trim the lamp 
of wisdom, and keep our minds strong and clear. Water surrounds 
the lotus flower, but does not wet its petals. This is the middle path, 
O bhikkhus, that keeps aloof from both extremes." And the Blessed 
One spoke kindly to his disciples, pitying them for their errors, and 
pointing out the uselessness of their endeavors, and the ice of ill-will 
that chilled their hearts melted away under the gentle warmth of the 
Master's persuasion.
          Now the Blessed One set the wheel of the most excellent law 
rolling, and he began to preach to the five bhikkhus, opening to 
them the gate of immortality, and showing them the bliss of 
          The Buddha said: "The spokes of the wheel are the rules of 
pure conduct: justice is the uniformity of their length; wisdom is the 
tire; modesty and thoughtfulness are the hub in which the 
immovable axle of truth is fixed. He who recognizes the existence of 
suffering, its cause, its remedy, and its cessation has fathomed the 
four noble truths. He will walk in the right path.
          "Right views will be the torch to light his way. Right 
aspirations will be his guide. Right speech will be his dwelling-
place on the road. His gait will be straight, for it is right behavior. 
His refreshments will be the right way of earning his livelihood. 
Right efforts will be his steps: right thoughts his breath; and right 
contemplation will give him the peace that follows in his footprints.
          "Now, this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning 
suffering: Birth is attended with pain, decay is painful, disease is 
painful, death is painful. Union with the unpleasant is painful, 
painful is separation from the pleasant; and any craving that is 
unsatisfied, that too is painful. In brief, bodily conditions which 
spring from attachment are painful. This, then, O bhikkhus, is the 
noble truth concerning suffering.
          "Now this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin 
of suffering: Verily, it is that craving which causes the renewal of 
existence, accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now 
here, now there, the craving for the gratification of the passions, the 
craving for a future life, and the craving for happiness in this life. 
This, then, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin of 
          "Now this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the 
destruction of suffering: Verily, it is the destruction, in which no 
passion remains, of this very thirst; it is the laying aside of, the 
being free from, the dwelling no longer upon this thirst. This, then, 
O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction of 
          "Now, this, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the way 
which leads to the destruction of sorrow. Verily, it is this noble 
eightfold path; that is to say: Right views; right aspirations; right 
speech; right behavior; right livelihood; right effort; right thoughts; 
and right contemplation. This, then, O bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the destruction of sorrow.
          "By the practice of loving-kindness I have attained liberation 
of heart, and thus I am assured that I shall never return in renewed 
births. I have even now attained Nirvana."
          When the Blessed One had thus set the royal chariot wheel of 
truth rolling onward, a rapture thrilled through all the universes. The 
devas left their heavenly abodes to listen to the sweetness of the 
truth; the saints that had parted from life crowded around the great 
teacher to receive the glad tidings; even the animals of the earth felt 
the bliss that rested upon the words of the Tathagata: and all the 
creatures of the host of sentient beings, gods, men, and beasts, 
hearing the message of deliverance, received and understood it in 
their own language.
          And when the doctrine was propounded, the venerable 
Kondanna, the oldest one among the five bhikkhus, discerned the 
truth with his mental eye, and he said: "Truly, O Buddha, our Lord, 
thou hast found the truth!" Then the other bhikkhus too, joined him 
and exclaimed: "Truly, thou art the Buddha, thou hast found the 
          And the devas and saints and all the good spirits of the 
departed generations that had listened to the sermon of the 
Tathagata, joyfully received the doctrine and shouted: "Truly, the 
Blessed One has founded the kingdom of righteousness. The 
Blessed One has moved the earth; he has set the wheel of Truth 
rolling, which by no one in the universe, be he god or man, can ever 
be turned back. The kingdom of Truth will be preached upon earth; 
it will spread; and righteousness, good-will, and peace will reign 
among mankind."
          HAVING pointed out to the five bhikkhus the truth, the 
Buddha said: "A man that stands alone, having decided to obey the 
truth, may be weak and slip back into his old ways. Therefore, stand 
ye together, assist one another, and strengthen one another efforts. 
Be like unto brothers; one in love, one in holiness, and one in your 
zeal for the truth. Spread the truth and preach the doctrine in all 
quarters of the world, so that in the end all living creatures will be 
citizens of the kingdom of righteousness. This is the holy 
brotherhood; this is the church, the congregation of the saints of the 
Buddha; this is the Sangha that establishes a communion among all 
those who have taken their refuge in the Buddha."
          Kondanna was the first disciple of the Buddha who had 
thoroughly grasped the doctrine of the Holy One, and the Tathagata 
looking into his heart said: "Truly, Kondanna has understood the 
truth." Therefore the venerable Kondanna received the name 
"Annata-Kondanna that is, "Kondanna who has understood the 
doctrine." Then the venerable Kondanna spoke to the Buddha and 
said: "Lord, let us receive the ordination from the blessed One." And 
the Buddha said: "Come, O bhikkhus! Well taught is the doctrine. 
Lead a holy life for the extinction of suffering."
          Then Kondanna and the other bhikkhus uttered three times 
these solemn vows: "To the Buddha will I look in faith: He, the 
Perfect One, is holy and supreme. The Buddha conveys to us 
instruction, wisdom, and salvation; he is the Blessed One, who 
knows the law of being; he is the Lord of the world, who yoketh 
men like oxen, the Teacher of gods and men, the Exalted Buddha. 
Therefore, to the Buddha will I look in faith.
          "To the doctrine will I look in faith: well-preached is the 
doctrine by the Exalted One. The doctrine has been revealed so as to 
become visible; the doctrine is above time and space. The doctrine 
is not based upon hearsay, it means 'Come and see'; the doctrine to 
welfare; the doctrine is recognized by the wise in their own hearts. 
Therefore to the doctrine will I look in faith.
          "To the community will I look in faith; the community of the 
Buddha's disciples instructs us how to lead a life of righteousness; 
the community of the Buddha's disciples teaches us how to exercise 
honesty and justice; the community of the Buddha's disciples shows 
us how to practice the truth. They form a brotherhood in kindness 
and charity, and their saints are worthy of reverence. The 
community of the Buddha's disciples is founded as a holy 
brotherhood in which men bind themselves together to teach the 
behests of rectitude and to do good. Therefore, to the community 
will I look in faith."
          The gospel of the Blessed One increased from day to day, and 
many people came to hear him and to accept the ordination to lead 
thenceforth a holy life for the sake of the extinction of suffering. 
And the Blessed One seeing that it was impossible to attend to all 
who wanted to hear the truth and receive the ordination, sent out 
from the number of his disciples such as were to preach the Dharma, 
and said unto them:
          "The Dharma and the Vinaya proclaimed by the Tathagata 
shine forth when they are displayed, and not when they are 
concealed. But let not this doctrine, so full of truth and so excellent, 
fall into the hands of those unworthy of it, where it would be 
despised and contemned, treated shamefully, ridiculed and censured. 
I now grant you, O bhikkhus, this permission. Confer henceforth in 
the different countries the ordination upon those who are eager to 
receive it, when you find them worthy.
          "Go ye now, O bhikkhus, for the benefit of the many, for the 
welfare of mankind, out of compassion for the world. Preach the 
doctrine which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the middle, 
and glorious in the end, in the spirit as well as in the letter. There 
are beings whose eyes are scarcely covered with dust, but if the 
doctrine is not preached to them they cannot attain salvation. 
Proclaim to them a life of holiness. They will understand the 
doctrine and accept it."
          And it became an established custom that the bhikkhus went 
out preaching while the weather was good, but in the rainy season 
they came together again and joined their master, to listen to the 
exhortations of the Tathagata.
          AT that time there was in Benares a noble youth, Yasa by 
name, the son of a wealthy merchant. Troubled in his mind about the 
sorrows of the world, he secretly rose up in the night and stole away 
to the Blessed One. The Blessed One saw Yasa coming from afar. 
Yasa approached and exclaimed: "Alas, what distress! What 
          The Blessed One said to Yasa: "Here is no distress; here are no 
tribulations. Come to me and I will teach you the truth, and the truth 
will dispel your sorrows."
          When Yasa, the noble youth, heard that there were neither 
distress, nor tribulations, nor sorrows, his heart was comforted. He 
went into the place where the Blessed One was, and sat down near 
him. Then the Blessed One preached about charity and morality. He 
explained the vanity of the thought "I am"; the dangers of desire, 
and the necessity of avoiding the evils of life in order to walk on the 
path of deliverance.
          Instead of disgust with the world, Yasa felt the cooling stream 
of holy wisdom, and, having obtained the pure and spotless eye of 
truth, he looked at his person, richly adorned with pearls and 
precious stones, and his heart was shamed.
          The Tathagata, knowing his inward thoughts, said: "Though a 
person be ornamented with jewels, the heart may have conquered 
the senses. The outward form does not constitute religion or affect 
the mind. Thus the body of a samana may wear an ascetic's garb 
while his mind is immersed in worldliness. A man that dwells in 
lonely woods and yet covets worldly vanities, is a worldling, while 
the man in worldly garments may let his heart soar high to heavenly 
thoughts. There is no distinction between the layman and the hermit, 
if but both have banished the thought of self."
          Seeing that Yasa was ready to enter upon the path, the Blessed 
One said to him: "Follow me!" And Yasa joined the brotherhood, 
and having put on a bhikkhu's robe, received the ordination.
          While the Blessed One and Yasa were discussing the doctrine, 
Yasa's father passed by in search of his son; and in passing he asked 
the Blessed One: "Pray, Lord, hast thou seen Yasa, my son?"
          The Buddha said to Yasa's father: "Come in, sir, thou wilt find 
thy son"; and Yasa's father became full of joy and he entered. He sat 
down near his son, but his eyes were holden and he knew him not; 
and the Lord began to preach. And Yasa's father, understanding the 
doctrine of the Blessed One, said:
          "Glorious is the truth, O Lord! The Buddha, the Holy One, our 
Master, sets up what has been overturned; he reveals what has been 
hidden; he points out the way to the wanderer who has gone astray; 
he lights a lamp in the darkness so that all who have eyes to see can 
discern the things that surround them. I take refuge in the Buddha, 
our Lord: I take refuge in the doctrine revealed by him: I take refuge 
in the brotherhood which he has founded. May the Blessed One 
receive me from this day forth while my life lasts as a lay disciple 
who has taken refuge in him." Yasa's father was the first lay-
member who became the first lay disciple of the Buddha by 
pronouncing the three-fold formula of refuge.
          When the wealthy merchant had taken refuge in the Buddha, 
his eyes were opened and he saw his son sitting at his side in a 
bhikkhu's robe. "My son, Yasa, he said, thy mother is absorbed in 
lamentation and grief. Return home and restore thy mother to life."
          Then Yasa looked at the Blessed One, who said: "Should Yasa 
return to the world and enjoy the pleasures of a worldly life as he 
did before?" Yasa's father replied: "If Yasa, my son, finds it a gain 
to stay with thee, let him stay. He has become delivered from the 
bondage of worldliness."
          When the Blessed One had cheered their hearts with words of 
truth and righteousness, Yasa's father said: "May the Blessed One, 
O Lord, consent to take his meal with me together with Yasa as his 
attendant?" The Blessed One, having donned his robes, took his 
alms-bowl and went with Yasa to the house of the rich merchant. 
When they had arrived there, the mother and also the former wife of 
Yasa saluted the Blessed One and sat down near him.
          Then the Blessed One preached, and the women having 
understood his doctrine, exclaimed: "Glorious is the truth, O Lord! 
We take refuge in the Buddha, our Lord. We take refuge in the 
doctrine revealed by him. We take refuge in the brotherhood which 
has been founded by him. May the Blessed One receive us from this 
day forth while our life lasts as lay disciples who have taken refuge 
in him." The mother and the wife of Yasa, the noble youth of 
Benares, were the first women who became lay disciples and took 
their refuge in the Buddha.
          Now there were four friends of Yasa belonging to the wealthy 
families of Benares. Their names were Vimala, Subahu, Punnaji, 
and Gavampati.
          When Yasa's friends heard that Yasa had cut off his hair and 
put on bhikkhu robes to give up the world and go forth into 
homelessness, they thought: "Surely that cannot be a common 
doctrine, that must be a noble renunciation of the world.
          And they went to Yasa, and Yasa addressed the Blessed One 
saying: "May the Blessed One administer exhortation and 
instruction to these four friends of mine." And the Blessed One 
preached to them, and Yasa's friends accepted the doctrine and took 
refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.  
          AT that time there lived in Uruvela the Jatilas, Brahman 
hermits with matted hair, worshiping the fire and keeping a fire-
dragon; and Kassapa was their chief. Kassapa was renowned 
throughout all India, and his name was honored as one of the wisest 
men on earth and an authority on religion. And the Blessed One 
went to Kassapa of Uruvela the Jatila, and said: "Let me stay a night 
in the room where you keep your sacred fire."
          Kassapa, seeing the Blessed One in his majesty and beauty, 
thought to himself: "This is a great muni and a noble teacher. 
Should he stay overnight in the room where the sacred fire is kept, 
the serpent will bite him and he will die." And he said: "I do not 
object to your staying overnight in the room where the sacred fire is 
kept, but the serpent lives there; he will kill you and I should be 
sorry to see you perish."
          But the Buddha insisted and Kassapa admitted him to the room 
where the sacred fire was kept. And the Blessed One sat down with 
body erect, surrounding himself with watchfulness. In the night the 
dragon came, belching forth in rage his fiery poison, and filling the 
air with burning vapor, but could do him no harm, and the fire 
consumed itself while the World-honored One remained composed. 
And the venomous fiend became very wroth so that he died in his 
anger. When Kassapa saw the light shining forth from the room he 
said: "Alas, what misery! Truly, the countenance of Gotama the 
great Sakyamuni is beautiful, but the serpent will destroy him."
          In the morning the Blessed One showed the dead body of the 
fiend to Kassapa, saying: "His fire has been conquered by my fire." 
And Kassapa thought to himself. "Sakyamuni is a great samana and 
possesses high powers, but he is not holy like me."
          There was in those days a festival, and Kassapa thought: "The 
people will come hither from all parts of the country and will see the 
great Sakyamuni. When he speaks to them, they will believe in him 
and abandon me." And he grew envious. When the day of the 
festival arrived, the Blessed One retired and did not come to 
Kassapa. And Kassapa went to the Buddha on the next morning and 
said: "Why did the great Sakyamuni not come?"
          The Tathagata replied: "Didst thou not think, O Kassapa, that 
it would be better if I stayed away from the festival?" And Kassapa 
was astonished and thought: "Great is Sakyamuni; he can read my 
most secret thoughts, but he is not holy like me."
          The Blessed One addressed Kassapa and said: "Thou seest the 
truth, but acceptest it not because of the envy that dwells in thy 
heart. Is envy holiness? Envy is the last remnant of self that has 
remained in thy mind. Thou art not holy, Kassapa; thou hast not yet 
entered the path." And Kassapa gave up his resistance. His envy 
disappeared, and, bowing down before the Blessed One, he said: 
"Lord, our Master, let me receive the ordination from the Blessed 
          And the Blessed One said: "Thou, Kassapa, art chief of the 
Jatilas. Go, then, first and inform them of thine intention, and let 
them do as thou thinkest fit." Then Kassapa went to the Jatilas and 
said: "I am anxious to lead a religious life under the direction of the 
great Sakyamuni, who is the Enlightened One, the Buddha. Do as ye 
think best."
          The Jatilas replied: "We have conceived a profound affection 
for the great Sakyamuni, and if thou wilt join his brotherhood, we 
will do likewise." The Jatilas of Uruvela now flung their 
paraphernalia of fire-worship into the river and went to the Blessed 
          Nadi Kassapa and Gaya Kassapa, brothers of the great Uruvela 
Kassapa, powerful men and chieftains among the people, were 
dwelling below on the stream, and when they saw the instruments 
used in fire-worship floating in the river, they said: "Something has 
happened to our brother. And they came with their folk to Uruvela. 
Hearing what had happened, they, too, went to the Buddha.
          The Blessed One, seeing that the Jatilas of Nadi and Gaya, 
who had practiced severe austerities and worshiped fire, were now 
come to him, preached a sermon on fire, and said: "Everything, O 
Jatilas, is burning. The eye is burning, all the senses are burning, 
thoughts are burning. They are burning with the fire of lust. There is 
anger, there is ignorance, there is hatred, and as long as the fire 
finds inflammable things upon which it can feed, so long will it 
burn, and there will be birth and death, decay, grief, lamentation, 
suffering, despair, and sorrow. Considering this, a disciple of the 
Dharma will see the four noble truths and walk in the eightfold path 
of holiness. He will become wary of his eye, wary of all his senses, 
wary of his thoughts. He will divest himself of passion and become 
free. He will be delivered from selfishness and attain the blessed 
state of Nirvana."
          And the Jatilas rejoiced and took refuge in the Buddha, the 
Dharma, and the Sangha.
          THE Blessed One having dwelt some time in Uruvela went to 
Rajagaha, accompanied by a number of bhikkhus, many of whom 
had been Jatilas before. The great Kassapa, chief of the Jatilas and 
formerly a fire worshiper, went with him.
          When the Magadha king, Seniya Bimbisara, heard of the 
arrival of Gotama Sakyamuni, of whom the people said, "He is the 
Holy One, the blessed Buddha, guiding men as a driver curbs 
bullocks, the teacher of high and low," he went out surrounded with 
his counselors and generals and came to the grove where the 
Blessed One was. There they saw the Blessed One in the company 
of Kassapa, the great religious teacher of the Jatilas, and they were 
astonished and thought: "Has the great Sakyamuni placed himself 
under the spiritual direction of Kassapa, or has Kassapa become a 
disciple of Gotama?"
          The Tathagata, reading the thoughts of the people, said to 
Kassapa: "What knowledge hast thou gained, O Kassapa, and what 
has induced thee to renounce the sacred fire and give up thine 
austere penances?"
          Kassapa said: "The profit I derived from adoring the fire was 
continuance in the wheel of individuality with all its sorrows and 
vanities. This service I have cast away, and instead of continuing 
penances and sacrifices I have gone in quest of the highest Nirvana. 
Since I have seen the light of truth, I have abandoned worshiping the 
          The Buddha, perceiving that the whole assembly was ready as 
a vessel to receive the doctrine, spoke thus to Bimbisara the king: 
"He who knows the nature of self and understands how the senses 
act, finds no room for selfishness, and thus he will attain peace 
unending. The world holds the thought of self, and from this arises 
false apprehension. Some say that the self endures after death, some 
say it perishes. Both are wrong and their error is most grievous. For 
if they say the self is perishable, the fruit they strive for will perish 
too, and at some time there will be no hereafter. Good and evil 
would be indifferent. This salvation from selfishness is without 
          "When some, on the other hand, say the self will not perish, 
then in the midst of all life and death there is but one identity unborn 
and undying. If such is their self, then it is perfect and cannot be 
perfected by deeds. The lasting, imperishable self could never be 
changed. self would be lord and master, and there would be no use 
in perfecting the perfect; moral aims and salvation would be 
          "But now we see the marks of joy and sorrow. Where is any 
constancy? If there is no permanent self that does our deeds, then 
there is no self; there is no actor behind our actions, no perceiver 
behind our perception, no lord behind our deeds.
          "Now attend and listen: The senses meet the object and from 
their contact sensation is born. Thence results recollection. Thus, as 
the sun's power through a burning-glass causes fire to appear, so 
through the cognizance born of sense and object, the mind originates 
and with it the ego, the thought of self, whom some Brahman 
teachers call the lord. The shoot springs from the seed; the seed is 
not the shoot; both are not one and the same, but successive phases 
in a continuous growth. Such is the birth of animated life.
          "Ye that are slaves of the self and toil in its service from morn 
until night, ye that live in constant fear of birth, old age, sickness, 
and death, receive the good tidings that your cruel master exists not. 
Self is an error, an illusion, a dream. Open your eyes and awaken. 
See things as they are and ye will be comforted. He who is awake 
will no longer be afraid of nightmares. He who has recognized the 
nature of the rope that seemed to be a serpent will cease to tremble.
          "He who has found there is no self will let go all the lusts and 
desires of egotism. The cleaving to things, covetousness, and 
sensuality inherited from former existences, are the causes of the 
misery and vanity in the world. Surrender the grasping disposition 
of selfishness, and you will attain to that calm state of mind which 
conveys perfect peace, goodness, and wisdom."
          And the Buddha breathed forth this solemn utterance:
          "Do not deceive, do not despise
          Each other, anywhere.
          Do not be angry, and do not
          Secret resentment bear;
          For as a mother risks her life
          And watches over her child,
          So boundless be your love to all,
          So tender, kind and mild.
          "Yea cherish good-will right and left,
          For all, both soon and late,
          And with no hindrance, with no stint,
          From envy free and hate;
          While standing, walking, sitting down,
          Forever keep in mind:
          The rule of life that's always best
          Is to be loving-kind.
          "Gifts are great, the founding of viharas is meritorious, 
meditations and religious exercises pacify the heart, comprehension 
of the truth leads to Nirvana, but greater than all is loving-kindness. 
As the light of the moon is sixteen times stronger than the light of 
all the stars, so loving-kindness is sixteen times more efficacious in 
liberating the heart than all other religious accomplishments taken 
together. This state of heart is the best in the world. Let a man 
remain steadfast in it while he is awake, whether he is standing, 
walking, sitting, or lying down."
          When the Enlightened One had finished his sermon, the 
Magadha king said to the Blessed One: "In former days, Lord, when 
I was a prince, I cherished five wishes. I wished: O, that I might be 
inaugurated as a king. This was my first wish, and it has been 
fulfilled. Further, I wished: Might the Holy Buddha, the Perfect 
One, appear on earth while I rule and might he come to my 
kingdom. This was my second wish and it is fulfilled now. Further I 
wished: Might I pay my respects to him. This was my third wish and 
it is fulfilled now. The fourth wish was: Might the Blessed One 
preach the doctrine to me, and this is fulfilled now.
          "The greatest wish, however, was the fifth wish: Might I 
understand the doctrine of the Blessed One. And this wish is 
fulfilled too.
          "Glorious Lord! Most glorious is the truth preached by the 
Tathagata! Our Lord, the Buddha, sets up what has been overturned; 
he reveals what has been hidden; he points out the way to the 
wanderer who has gone astray; he lights a lamp in the darkness so 
that those who have eyes to see may see. I take my refuge in the 
Buddha. I take my refuge in the Dharma. I take my refuge in the 
          The Tathagata, by the exercise of his virtue and by wisdom, 
showed his unlimited spiritual power. He subdued and harmonized 
all minds. He made them see and accept the truth, and throughout 
the kingdom the seeds of virtue were sown.
          SENIYA BIMBISARA, the king, having taken his refuge in 
the Buddha, invited the Tathagata to his palace, saying: "Will the 
Blessed One consent to take his meal with me tomorrow together 
with the fraternity of bhikkhus?" The next morning the king 
announced to the Blessed One that it was time for taking food: 
"Thou art my most welcome guest, O Lord of the world, come; the 
meal is prepared."
          The Blessed One having donned his robes, took his alms-bowl 
and, together with a great number of bhikkhus, entered the city of 
Rajagaha. Sakka, the king of the Devas, assuming the appearance of 
a young Brahman, walked in front, and said: "He who teaches self-
control with those who have learned self-control; the redeemer with 
those whom he has redeemed; the Blessed One with those to whom 
he has given peace, is entering Rajagaha Hail to the Buddha, our 
Lord!  Honor to his name and blessings to all who take refuge in 
him." Sakka intoned this stanza:
          "Blessed is the place in which the Buddha walks,
          And blessed the ears which hear his talks;
          Blessed his disciples, for they are
          The tellers of his truth both near and far.
          "If all could hear this truth so good
          Then all men's minds would eat rich food,
          And strong would grow men's brotherhood."
          When the Blessed One had finished his meal, and had cleansed 
his bowl and his hands, the king sat down near him and thought:
          "Where may I find a place for the Blessed One to live in, not 
too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and 
coming, easily accessible to all people who want to see him, a place 
that is by day not too crowded and by night not exposed to noise, 
wholesome and well fitted for a retired life? There is my pleasure-
garden, the bamboo grove Veluvana, fulfilling all these conditions. I 
shall offer it to the brotherhood whose head is the Buddha."
          The king dedicated his garden to the brotherhood, saying: 
"May the Blessed One accept my gift." Then the Blessed One, 
having silently shown his consent and having gladdened and edified 
the Magadha king by religious discourse, rose from his seat and 
went away.
          AT that time Sariputta and Moggallana, two Brahmans and 
chiefs of the followers of Sanjaya, led a religious life. They had 
promised each other: "He who first attains Nirvana shall tell the 
other one."
          Sariputta seeing the venerable Assaji begging for alms, 
modestly keeping his eyes to the ground and dignified in 
deportment, exclaimed: "Truly this samana has entered the right 
path; I will ask him in whose name he has retired from the world 
and what doctrine he professes." Being addressed by Sariputta, 
Assaji replied: "I am a follower of the Buddha, the Blessed One, but 
being a novice I can tell you the substance only of the doctrine."
          Said Sariputta: "Tell me, venerable monk; it is the substance I 
want." And Assaji recited the stanza:
          "Nothing we seek to touch or see
          Can represent Eternity.
          They spoil and die: then let us find
          Eternal Truth within the mind."
          Having heard this stanza, Sariputta obtained the pure and 
spotless eye of truth and said: "Now I see clearly, whatsoever is 
subject to origination is also subject to cessation. If this be the 
doctrine I have reached the state to enter Nirvana which heretofore 
has remained hidden from me." Sariputta went to Moggallana and 
told him, and both said: "We will go to the Blessed One, that he, the 
Blessed One, may be our teacher."
          When the Buddha saw Sariputta and Moggallana coming from 
afar, he said to his disciples, These two monks are highly 
auspicious." When the two friends had taken refuge in the Buddha, 
the Dharma and the Sangha, the Holy One said to his other 
disciples: "Sariputta, like the first-born O son of a world-ruling 
monarch, is well able to assist the king as his chief follower to set 
the wheel of the law rolling."
          Now the people were annoyed. Seeing that many distinguished 
young men of the kingdom of Magadha led a religious life under the 
direction of the Blessed One, they became angry and murmured: 
"Gotama Sakyamuni induces fathers to leave their wives and causes 
families to become extinct." When they saw the bhikkhus, they 
reviled them, saying: "The great Sakyamuni has come to Rajagaha 
subduing the minds of men. Who will be the next to be led astray by 
          The bhikkhus told it to the Blessed One, and the Blessed One 
said: "This murmuring, O bhikkhus, will not last long. it will last 
seven days. If they revile you, answer them with these words: 'It is 
by preaching the truth that Tathagatas lead men. Who will murmur 
at the wise? Who will blame the virtuous? Who will condemn self-
control, righteousness, and kindness?" And the Blessed One 
          "Commit no wrong, do only good,
          And let your heart be pure.
          This is the doctrine Buddhas teach,
          And this doctrine will endure."
          AT this time there was Anathapindika, a man of unmeasured 
wealth, visiting Rajagaha. Being of a charitable disposition, he was 
called "the supporter of orphans and the friend of the poor." Hearing 
that the Buddha had come into the world and was stopping in the 
bamboo grove near the city, he set out on that very night to meet the 
Blessed One.
          And the Blessed One saw at once the sterling quality of 
Anathapindika's heart and greeted him with words of religious 
comfort. And they sat down together, and Anathapindika listened to 
the sweetness of the truth preached by the Blessed One. And the 
Buddha said: "The restless, busy nature of the world, this, I declare, 
is at the root of pain. Attain that composure of mind which is resting 
in the peace of immortality. Self is but a heap of composite 
qualities, and its world is empty like a fantasy.
          "Who is it that shapes our lives? Is it Isvara, a personal 
creator? If Isvara be the maker, all living things should have silently 
to submit to their maker's power. They would be like vessels formed 
by the potter's hand; and if it were so, how would it be possible to 
practice virtue? If the world had been made by Isvara there should 
be no such thing as sorrow, or calamity, or evil; for both pure and 
impure deeds must come from him. If not, there would be another 
cause beside him, and he would not be self-existent. Thus, thou 
seest, the thought of Isvara is overthrown.
          "Again, it is said that the Absolute has created us. But that 
which is absolute cannot be a cause. All things around us come from 
a cause as the plant comes from the seed; but how can the Absolute 
be the cause of all things alike? If it pervades them, then, certainly, 
it does not make them.
          "Again, it is said that Self is the maker. But if self is the 
maker, why did it not make things pleasing? The causes of sorrow 
and joy are real and touchable. How can they have been made by 
          "Again, if we adopt the argument that there is no maker, our 
fate is such as it is, and there is no causation, what use would there 
be in shaping our lives and adjusting means to an end? Therefore, 
we argue that all things that exist are not without cause. However, 
neither Isvara, nor the absolute, nor the self nor causeless chance, is 
the maker, but our deeds produce results both good and evil 
according to the law of causation.
          "Let us, then, abandon the heresy of worshiping Isvara and of 
praying to him; let us no longer lose ourselves in vain speculations 
or profitless subtleties; let us surrender self and all selfishness, and 
as all things are fixed by causation, let us practice good so that good 
may result from our actions."
          And Anathapindika said: "I see that thou art the Buddha, the 
Blessed One the Tathagata, and I wish to open to the my whole 
mind. Having listened to my words advise me what I shall do. My 
life is full of work, and having acquired great wealth, I am 
surrounded with cares. Yet I enjoy my work, and apply myself to it 
with all diligence. Many people are in my employ and depend upon 
the success of my enterprises.
          "Now, I have heard thy disciples praise the bliss of the hermit 
and denounce the unrest of the world. 'The Holy One,' they say, 'has 
given up his kingdom and his inheritance, and has found the path of 
righteousness, thus setting an example to all the world how to attain 
Nirvana.' My heart yearns to do what is right and to be a blessing 
unto my fellows. Let me then ask thee, Must I give up my wealth, 
my home, and my business enterprises, and, like thyself, go into 
homelessness in order to attain the bliss of a religious life?"
          And the Buddha replied: "The bliss of a religious life is 
attainable by every one who walks in the noble eightfold path. He 
that cleaves to wealth had better cast it away than allow his heart to 
be poisoned by it; but he who does not cleave to wealth, and 
possessing riches, uses them rightly, will be a blessing unto his 
fellows. It is not life and wealth and power that enslave men, but the 
cleaving to life and wealth and power. The bhikkhu who retires 
from the world in order to lead a life of leisure will have no gain, for 
a life of indolence is an abomination, and lack of energy is to be 
despised. The Dharma of the Tathagata does not require a man to go 
into homelessness or to resign the world, unless he feels called upon 
to do so; but the Dharma of the Tathagata requires every man to free 
himself from the illusion of self, to cleanse his heart, to give up his 
thirst for pleasure, and lead a life of righteousness. And whatever 
men do, whether they remain in the world as artisans, merchants, 
and officers of the king, or retire from the world and devote 
themselves to a life of religious meditation, let them put their whole 
heart into their task; let them be diligent and energetic, and, if they 
are like the lotus, which, although it grows in the water, yet remains 
untouched by the water, if they struggle in life without cherishing 
envy or hatred, if they live in the world not a life of self but a life of 
truth, then surely joy, peace, and bliss will dwell in their minds."
          ANATHAPINDIKA rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One 
and said: I dwell at Savatthi, the capital of Kosala, a land rich in 
produce and enjoying peace. Pasenadi is the king of the country, and 
his name is renowned among our own people and our neighbors. 
Now I wish to found there a vihara which shall be a place of 
religious devotion for your brotherhood, and I pray you kindly to 
accept it."
          The Buddha saw into the heart of the supporter of orphans; and 
knowing that unselfish charity was the moving cause of his offer, in 
acceptance of the gift, the Blessed One said: "The charitable man is 
loved by all; his friendship is prized highly; in death his heart is at 
rest and full of joy, for he suffers not from repentance; he receives 
the opening flower of his reward and the fruit that ripens from it. 
Hard it is to understand: By giving away our food, we get more 
strength, by bestowing clothing on others, we gain more beauty; by 
donating abodes of purity and truth, we acquire great treasures.
          "There is a proper time and a proper mode in charity; just as 
the vigorous warrior goes to battle, so is the man who is able to 
give. He is like an able warrior a champion strong and wise in 
action. Loving and compassionate he gives with reverence and 
banishes all hatred, envy, and anger.
          "The charitable man has found the path of salvation. He is like 
the man who plants a sapling, securing thereby the shade, the 
flowers, and the fruit in future years. Even so is the result of charity, 
even so is the joy of him who helps those that are in need of 
assistance; even so is the great Nirvana. We reach the immortal path 
only by continuous acts of kindliness and we perfect our souls by 
compassion and charity."
          Anathapindika invited Sariputta to accompany him on his 
return to Kosala and help him in selecting a pleasant site for the 
          ANATHAPINDIKA, the friend of the destitute and the 
supporter of orphans, having returned home, saw the garden of the 
heir-apparent, Jeta, with its green groves and limpid rivulets, and 
thought: "This is the place which will be most suitable as a vihara 
for the brotherhood of the Blessed One." And he went to the prince 
and asked leave to buy the ground. The prince was not inclined to 
sell the garden, for he valued it highly. He at first refused but said at 
last, "If thou canst cover it with gold, then, and for no other price, 
shalt thou have it." Anathapindika rejoiced and began to spread his 
gold; but Jeta said: "Spare thyself the trouble, for I will not sell." 
But Anathapindika insisted. Thus they contended until they resorted 
to the magistrate.
          Meanwhile the people began to talk of the unwonted 
proceeding, and the prince, hearing more of the details and knowing 
that Anathapindika was not only very wealthy but also 
straightforward and sincere, inquired into his plans. On hearing the 
name of the Buddha, the prince became anxious to share in the 
foundation and he accepted only one-half of the gold, saying: 
"Yours is the land, but mine are the trees. I will give the trees as my 
share of this offering to the Buddha."
          Then Anathapindika took the land and Jeta the trees, and they 
placed them in trust of Sariputta for the Buddha. After the 
foundations were laid, they began to build the hall which rose loftily 
in due proportions according to the directions which the Buddha had 
suggested; and it was beautifully decorated with appropriate 
carvings. This vihara was called Jetavana, and the friend of the 
orphans invited the Lord to come to Savatthi and receive the 
donation. And the Blessed One left Kapilavatthu and came to 
          While the Blessed One was entering Jetavana, Anathapindika 
scattered flowers and burned incense, and as a sign of the gift he 
poured water from a golden dragon decanter, saying, "This Jetavana 
vihara I give for the use of the brotherhood throughout the world." 
The Blessed One received the gift and replied: "May all evil 
influences be overcome; may the offering promote the kingdom of 
righteousness and be a permanent blessing to mankind in general, to 
the land of Kosala, and especially also to the giver."
          Then the king Pasenadi, hearing that the Lord had come, went 
in his royal equipage to the Jetavana vihara and saluted the Blessed 
One with clasped hands, saying: "'Blessed is my unworthy and 
obscure kingdom that it has met with so great a fortune. For how 
can calamities and dangers befall it in the presence of the Lord of 
the world, the Dharmaraja, the King of Truth. Now that I have seen 
thy sacred countenance, let me partake of the refreshing waters of 
thy teachings. Worldly profit is fleeting and perishable, but religious 
profit is eternal and inexhaustible. A worldly man, though a king, is 
full of trouble, but even a common man who is holy has peace of 
          Knowing the tendency of the king's heart, weighed down by 
avarice and love of pleasure, the Buddha seized the opportunity and 
said: "Even those who, by their evil karma, have been born in low 
degree, when they see a virtuous man, feel reverence for him. How 
much more must an independent king, on account of merits acquired 
in previous existences, when meeting a Buddha, conceive reverence 
for him. And now as I briefly expound the law, let the Maharaja 
listen and weigh my words, and hold fast that which I deliver!
          "Our good or evil deeds follow us continually like shadows. 
That which is most needed is a loving heart! Regard thy people as 
men do an only son. Do not oppress them, do not destroy them; keep 
in due check every member of thy body, forsake unrighteous 
doctrine and walk in the straight path. Exalt not thyself by trampling 
down others, but comfort and befriend the suffering. Neither ponder 
on kingly dignity, nor listen to the smooth words of flatterers.
          There is no profit in vexing oneself by austerities, but meditate 
on the Buddha and weigh his righteous law. We are encompassed on 
all sides by the rocks of birth, old age, disease, and death, and only 
by considering and practicing the true law can we escape from this 
sorrow-piled mountain. What profit, then, in practicing iniquity?
          "All who are wise spurn the pleasures of the body. They loathe 
lust and seek to promote their spiritual existence. When a tree is 
burning with fierce flames, how can the birds congregate therein? 
Truth cannot dwell where passion lives. He who does not know this, 
though he be a learned man and be praised by others as a sage, is 
beclouded with ignorance. To him who has this knowledge true 
wisdom dawns, and he will beware of hankering after pleasure. To 
acquire this state of mind, wisdom is the one thing needful. To 
neglect wisdom will lead to failure in life. The teachings of all 
religions should center here, for without wisdom there is no reason.
          "This truth is not for the hermit alone; it concerns every human 
being, priest and layman alike. There is no distinction between the 
monk who has taken the vows, and the man of the world living with 
his family. There are hermits who fall into perdition, and there are 
humble householders who mount to the rank of rishis. Hankering 
after pleasure is a danger common to all; it carries away the world. 
He who is involved in its eddies finds no escape. But wisdom is the 
handy boat, reflection is the rudder. The slogan of religion calls you 
to overcome the assaults of Mara, the enemy.
          "Since it is impossible to escape the result of our deeds, let us 
practice good works. Let us guard our thoughts that we do no evil, 
for as we sow so shall we reap. There are ways from light into 
darkness and from darkness into light. There are ways, also, from 
the gloom into deeper darkness, and from the dawn into brighter 
light. The wise man will use the light he has to receive more light. 
He will constantly advance in the knowledge of truth.
          "Exhibit true superiority by virtuous conduct and the exercise 
of reason; meditate deeply on the vanity of earthly things, and 
understand the fickleness of life. Elevate the mind, and seek sincere 
faith with firm purpose; transgress not the rules of kingly conduct, 
and let your happiness depend, not upon external things, but upon 
your own mind. Thus you will lay up a good name for distant ages 
and will secure the favor of the Tathagata."
          The king listened with reverence and remembered all the words 
of the Buddha in his heart.
          WHEN the Buddha was staying at the Veluvana, the bamboo 
grove at Rajagaha, he addressed the brethren thus: "Whether 
Buddhas arise, O priests, or whether Buddhas do not arise, it 
remains a fact and the fixed and necessary constitution of being that 
all conformations are transitory. This fact a Buddha discovers and 
masters, and when he has discovered and mastered it, he announces, 
publishes, proclaims, discloses, minutely explains and makes it 
clear that all conformations are transitory.
          "Whether Buddhas arise, O priests, or whether Buddhas do not 
arise, it remains a fact and a fixed and necessary constitution of 
being, that all conformations are suffering. This fact a Buddha 
discovers and masters, and when he has discovered and mastered it, 
he announces, publishes, proclaims, discloses, minutely explains 
and makes it clear that all conformations are suffering.
          "Whether Buddhas arise, O priests, or whether Buddhas do not 
arise, it remains a fact and a fixed and necessary constitution of 
being, that all conformations are lacking a self. This fact a Buddha 
discovers and masters, and when he has discovered and mastered it, 
he announces, teaches, publishes, proclaims, discloses, minutely 
explains and makes it clear that all conformations are lacking a 
          And on another occasion the Blessed One dwelt at Savatthi in 
the Jetavana, the garden of Anathapindika. At that time the Blessed 
One edified, aroused, quickened and gladdened the monks with a 
religious discourse on the subject of Nirvana. And these monks 
grasping the meaning, thinking it out, and accepting with their 
hearts the whole doctrine, listened attentively. But there was one 
brother who had some doubt left in his heart. He arose and clasping 
his hands made the request: "May I be permitted to ask a question?" 
When permission was granted he spoke as follows:
          "The Buddha teaches that all conformations are transient, that 
all conformations are subject to sorrow, that all conformations are 
lacking a self. How then can there be Nirvana, a state of eternal 
          And the Blessed One, this connection, on that occasion, 
breathed forth this solemn utterance: "There is, O monks, a state 
where there is neither earth, nor water, nor heat, nor air; neither 
infinity of space nor infinity of consciousness, nor nothingness, nor 
perception nor non-perception; neither this world nor that world, 
neither sun nor moon. It is the uncreate. That O monks, I term 
neither coming nor going nor standing; neither death nor birth. It is 
without stability, without change; it is the eternal which never 
originates and never passes away. There is the end of sorrow.
          "It is hard to realize the essential, the truth is not easily 
perceived; desire is mastered by him who knows, and to him who 
sees aright all things are naught. There is, O monks, an unborn, 
unoriginated, uncreated, unformed. Were there not, O monks, this 
unborn, unoriginated, uncreated, unformed, there would be no 
escape from the world of the born, originated, created, formed. 
Since, O monks, there is an unborn, unoriginated, uncreated and 
unformed, therefore is there an escape from the born, originated, 
created, formed."
          THE Buddha's name became famous over all India and 
Suddhodana, his father, sent word to him saying: "I am growing old 
and wish to see my son before I die. Others have had the benefit of 
his doctrine, but not his father nor his relatives." And the messenger 
said: "O world-honored Tathagata, thy father looks for thy coming 
as the lily longs for the rising of the sun."
          The Blessed One consented to the request of his father and set 
out on his journey to Kapilavatthu. Soon the tidings spread in the 
native country of the Buddha: "Prince Siddhattha, who wandered 
forth from home into homelessness to obtain enlightenment, having 
attained his purpose, is coming back."
          Suddhodana went out with his relatives and ministers to meet 
the prince. When the king saw Siddhattha, his son, from afar, he 
was struck with his beauty and dignity, and he rejoiced in his heart, 
but his mouth found no words to utter. This, indeed, was his son; 
these were the features of Siddhattha. How near was the great 
samana to his heart, and yet what a distance lay between them! That 
noble muni was no longer Siddhattha, his son; he was the Buddha, 
the Blessed One, the Holy One, Lord of truth, and teacher of 
mankind. Suddhodana the king, considering the religious dignity of 
his son, descended from his chariot and after saluting his son said: 
"It is now seven years since I have seen thee. How I have longed for 
this moment!"
          Then the Sakyamuni took a seat opposite his father, and the 
king gazed eagerly at his son. He longed to call him by his name, 
but he dared not. "Siddhattha," he exclaimed silently in his heart, 
"Siddhattha, come back to thine aged father and be his son again!" 
But seeing the determination of his son, he suppressed his 
sentiments, and, desolation overcame him. Thus the king sat face to 
face with his son, rejoicing in his sadness and sad in his rejoicing. 
Well might he be proud of his son, but his pride broke down at the 
idea that his great son would never be his heir.
          "I would offer thee my kingdom," said, the king, "but if I did, 
thou wouldst account it but as ashes."
          And the Buddha said: "I know that the king's heart is full of 
love and that for his son's sake he feels deep grief. But let the ties of 
love that bind him to the son whom he lost embrace with equal 
kindness all his fellow-beings, and he will receive in his place a 
greater one than Siddhattha; he will receive the Buddha, the teacher 
of truth, the preacher of righteousness, and the peace of Nirvana will 
enter into his heart."
          Suddhodana trembled with joy when he heard the melodious 
words of his son, the Buddha, and clasping his hands, exclaimed 
with tears in his eyes: "Wonderful in this change! The 
overwhelming sorrow has passed away. At first my sorrowing heart 
was heavy, but now I reap the fruit of thy great renunciation. It was 
right that, moved by thy mighty sympathy, thou shouldst reject the 
pleasures of royal power and achieve thy noble purpose in religious 
devotion. Now that thou hast found the path, thou canst preach the 
law of immortality to all the world that yearns for deliverance." The 
king returned to the palace, while the Buddha remained in the grove 
before the city.
          ON next morning the Buddha took his bowl and set out to beg 
his food. And the news spread abroad: "Prince Siddhattha is going 
from house to house to receive alms in the city where he used to ride 
in a chariot attended by his retinue. His robe is like a red clod, and 
he holds in his hand an earthen bowl."
          On hearing the strange rumor, the king went forth in great 
haste and when he met his son he exclaimed: "Why dost thou thus 
disgrace me? Knowest thou not that I can easily supply thee and thy 
bhikkhus with food?" And the Buddha replied: "It is the custom of 
my race."
          But the king said: "how can this be? Thou art descended from 
kings, and not one of them ever begged for food."
          "O great king," rejoined the Buddha thou and thy race may 
claim descent from kings; my descent is from the Buddhas of old. 
They, begging their food, lived on alms." The king made no reply, 
and the Blessed One continued: "It is customary, O king, when one 
has found a hidden treasure, for him to make an offering of the most 
precious jewel to his father. Suffer me, therefore, to open this 
treasure of mine which is the Dharma, and accept from me this 
gem": And the Blessed One recited the following stanza:
          "Arise from dreams and delusions,
          Awaken with open mind.
          Seek only Truth. Where you find it,
          Peace also you will find."
          Then the king conducted the prince into the palace, and the 
ministers and all the members of the royal family greeted him with 
great reverence, but Yasodhara, the mother of Rahula, did not make 
her appearance. The king sent for Yasodhara, but she replied: 
"Surely, if I am deserving of any regard, Siddhattha will come and 
see me."
          The Blessed One, having greeted all his relatives and friends, 
asked: "Where is Yasodhara?" And on being informed that she had 
refused to come, he rose straightway and went to her apartments.
          "I am free, the Blessed One said to his disciples, Sari putta and 
Moggallana, whom he had bidden to accompany him to the 
princess's chamber; "the princess, however, is not as yet free. Not 
having seen me for a long time, she is exceedingly sorrowful. Unless 
her grief be allowed its course her heart will cleave. Should she 
touch the Tathagata, the Holy One, ye must not prevent her."
          Yasodhara sat in her room, dressed in mean garments, and her 
hair cut. When Prince Siddhattha entered, she was, from the 
abundance of her affection, like an overflowing vessel, unable to 
contain her love. Forgetting that the man whom she loved was the 
Buddha, the Lord of the world, the preacher of truth, she held him 
by his feet and wept bitterly.
          Remembering, however, that Suddhodana was present, she felt 
ashamed, and rising, seated herself reverently at a little distance.
          The king apologized for the princess, saying: "This arises from 
her deep affection, and is more than a temporary emotion. During 
the seven years that she has lost her husband, when she heard that 
Siddhattha had shaved his head, she did likewise; when she heard 
that he had left off the use of perfumes and ornaments, she also 
refused their use. Like her husband she had eaten at appointed times 
from an earthen bowl only. Like him she had renounced high beds 
with splendid coverings, and when other princes asked her in 
marriage, she replied that she was still his. Therefore, grant her 
          And the Blessed One spoke kindly to Yasodhara, telling of her 
great merits inherited from former lives. She had indeed been again 
and again of great assistance to him. Her purity, her gentleness, her 
devotion had been invaluable to the Bodhisattva when he aspired to 
attain enlightenment, the highest aim of mankind. And so holy had 
she been that she desired to become the wife of a Buddha. This, 
then, is her karma, and it is the result of great merits. Her grief has 
been unspeakable, but the consciousness of the glory that surrounds 
her spiritual inheritance increased by her noble attitude during her 
life, will be a balm that will miraculously transform all sorrows into 
heavenly joy.
          MANY people in Kapilavatthu believed in the Tathagata and 
took refuge in his doctrine, among them Nanda Sidhattha's half-
brother, the son of Pajapati; Devadatta, his cousin and brother-in-
law; Upali the barber; and Anuruddha the philosopher. Some years 
later Ananda, another cousin of the Blessed One, also joined the 
          Ananda was a man after the heart of the Blessed One; he was 
his most beloved disciple, profound in comprehension and gentle in 
spirit. And Ananda remained always near the Blessed Master of 
truth, until death parted them.
          On the seventh day after the Buddha's arrival in Kapilavatthu, 
Yasodhara dressed Rahula, now seven years old, in all the splendor 
of a prince and said to him: "This holy man, whose appearance is so 
glorious that he looks like the great Brahma, is thy father. He 
possesses four great mines of wealth which I have not yet seen. Go 
to him and entreat him to put thee in possession of them, for the son 
ought to inherit the property of his father."
          Rahula replied: "I know of no father but the king. Who is my 
father?" The princess took the boy in her arms and from the window 
she pointed out to him the Buddha, who happened to be near the 
palace, partaking of food.
          Rahula then went to the Buddha, and looking up into his face 
said without fear and with much affection: "My father!" And 
standing near him, he added: "O samana, even thy shadow is a place 
of bliss!"
          When the Tathagata had finished his repast, he gave blessings 
and went away from the palace, but Rahula followed and asked his 
father for his inheritance. No one prevented the boy, nor did the 
Blessed One himself.
          Then the Blessed One turned to Sariputta, saying: "My son 
asks for his inheritance. I cannot give him perishable treasures that 
will bring cares and sorrows, but I can give him the inheritance of a 
holy life, which is a treasure that will not perish."
          Addressing Rahula with earnestness, the Blessed One said: 
"Gold and silver and jewels are not in my possession. But if thou art 
willing to receive spiritual treasures, and art strong enough to carry 
them and to keep them, I shall give thee the four truths which will 
teach thee the eightfold path of righteousness. Dost thou desire to be 
admitted to the brotherhood of those who devote their life to the 
culture of the heart seeking for the highest bliss attainable?"
          Rahula replied with firmness: "I do. I want to join the 
brotherhood of the Buddha."
          When the king heard that Rahula had joined the brotherhood of 
bhikkhus he was grieved. He had lost Siddhattha and Nanda, his 
sons, and Devadatta, his nephew. But now that his grandson had 
been taken from him, he went to the Blessed One and spoke to him. 
And the Blessed One promised that from that time forward he would 
not ordain any minor without the consent of his parents or 
          LONG before the Blessed One had attained enlightenment, 
self-mortification had been the custom among those who earnestly 
sought for salvation. Deliverance of the soul from all the necessities 
of life and finally from the body itself, they regarded as the aim of 
religion. Thus, they avoided everything that might be a luxury in 
food, shelter, and clothing, and lived like the beasts in the woods. 
Some went naked, while others wore the rags cast away upon 
cemeteries or dung-heaps.
          When the Blessed One retired from the world, he recognized at 
once the error of the naked ascetics, and, considering the indecency 
of their habit, clad himself in cast-off rags.
          Having attained enlightenment and rejected all unnecessary 
self-mortifications, the Blessed One and his bhikkhus continued for 
a long time to wear the cast-off rags of cemeteries and dung-heaps. 
Then it happened that the bhikkhus were visited with diseases of all 
kinds, and the Blessed One permitted and explicitly ordered the use 
of medicines, and among them he even enjoined, whenever needed, 
the use of unguents. One of the brethren suffered from a sore on his 
foot, and the Blessed One enjoined the bhikkhus to wear foot-
          Now it happened that a disease befell the body of the Blessed 
One himself, and Ananda went to Jivaka, physician to Bimbisara, 
the king. And Jivaka, a faithful believer in the Holy One, ministered 
unto the Blessed One with medicines and baths until the body of the 
Blessed One was completely restored.
          At that time, Pajjota, king of Ujjeni, was suffering from 
jaundice, and Jivaka, the physician to king Bimbisara, was 
consulted. When King Pajjota had been restored to health, he sent to 
Jivaka a suit of the most excellent cloth. And Jivaka said to himself: 
"This suit is made of the best cloth, and nobody is worthy to receive 
it but the Blessed One, the perfect and holy Buddha, or the Magadha 
king, Senija Bimbisara."
          Then Jivaka took that suit and went to the place where the 
Blessed One was; having approached him, and having respectfully 
saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him and said: "Lord, I 
have a boon to ask of the Blessed One." The Buddha replied: "The 
Tathagatas, Jivaka, do not grant boons before they know what they 
          Jivaka said: "Lord, it is a proper and unobjectionable request."
          "Speak, Jivaka, said the Blessed One.
          "Lord of the world, the Blessed One wears only robes made of 
rags taken from a dung-heap or a cemetery, and so also does the 
brotherhood of bhikkhus. Now, Lord, this suit has been sent to me 
by King Pajjota, which is the best and most excellent, and the finest 
and the most precious, and the noblest that can be found. Lord of the 
world, may the Blessed One accept from me this suit, and may he 
allow the brotherhood of bhikkhus to wear lay robes."
          The Blessed One accepted the suit, and after having delivered a 
religious discourse, he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Henceforth ye 
shall be at liberty to wear either cast-off rags or lay robes. Whether 
ye are pleased with the one or with the other, I will approve of it."
          When the people at Rajagaha heard, The Blessed One has 
allowed the bhikkhus to wear lay robes, those who were willing to 
bestow gifts became glad. And in one day many thousands of robes 
were presented at Rajagaha to the bhikkhus.
          WHEN Suddhodana had grown old, he fell sick and sent for 
his son to come and see him once more before he died; and the 
Blessed One came and stayed at the sick-bed, and Suddhodana, 
having attained perfect enlightenment, died in the arms of the 
Blessed One.
          And it is said that the Blessed One, for the sake of preaching to 
his mother Maya-devi, ascended to heaven and dwelt with the devas. 
Having concluded his pious mission, he returned to the earth and 
went about again, converting those who listened to his teachings.
          YASODHARA had three times requested of the Buddha that 
she might be admitted to the Sangha, but her wish had not been 
granted. Now Pajapati, the foster-mother of the Blessed One, in the 
company of Yasodhara, and many other women, went to the 
Tathagata entreating him earnestly to let them take the vows and be 
ordained as disciples.
          The Blessed One, foreseeing the danger that lurked in 
admitting women to the Sangha, protested that while the good 
religion ought surely to last a thousand years it would, when women 
joined it, likely decay after five hundred years; but observing the 
zeal of Pajapati and Yasodhara for leading a religious life he could 
no longer resist and assented to have them admitted as his disciples.
          Then the venerable Ananda addressed the Blessed One thus: 
"Are women competent, venerable Lord, if they retire from 
household life to the homeless state, under the doctrine and 
discipline announced by the Tathagata, to attain to the fruit of 
conversion, to attain to a release from a wearisome repetition of 
rebirths, to attain to saintship?" The Blessed One declared: "Women 
are competent, Ananda, if they retire from household life to the 
homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline announced by the 
Tathagata, to attain to the fruit of conversion, to attain to a release 
from a wearisome repetition of rebirths, to attain to saintship.
          "Consider, Ananda, how great a benefactress Pajapati has 
been. She is the sister of the mother of the Blessed One, and as 
foster-mother and nurse, reared the Blessed One after the death of 
his mother. So, Ananda, women may retire from household life to 
the homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline announced by 
the Tathagata."
          Pajapati was the first woman to become a disciple of the 
Buddha and to receive the ordination as a bhikkhuni.
          THE bhikkhus came to the Blessed One and asked him: "O 
Tathagata, our Lord and Master, what conduct toward women dost 
thou prescribe to the samanas who have left the world?"
          The Blessed One said: "Guard against looking on a woman. If 
ye see a woman, let it be as though ye saw her not, and have no 
conversation with her. If, after all, ye must speak with her, let it be 
with a pure heart, and think to yourself, 'I as a samana will live in 
this sinful world as the spotless leaf of the lotus, unsoiled by the 
mud in which it grows.'
          "If the woman be old, regard her as your mother, if young, as 
your sister, if very young, as your child. The samana who looks on a 
woman as a woman, or touches her as a woman, has broken his vow 
and is no longer a disciple of the Tathagata. The power of lust is 
great with men, and is to be feared withal; take then the bow of 
earnest perseverance, and the sharp arrow-points of wisdom. Cover 
your heads with the helmet of right thought, and fight with fixed 
resolve against the five desires. Lust beclouds a man's heart, when it 
is confused with woman's beauty, and the mind is dazed.
          "Better far with red-hot irons bore out both your eyes, than 
encourage in yourself sensual thoughts, or look upon a woman's 
form with lustful desires. Better fall into the fierce tiger's mouth, or 
under the sharp knife of the executioner, than dwell with a woman 
and excite in yourself lustful thoughts.
          "A woman of the world is anxious to exhibit her form and 
shape, whether walking, standing, sitting, or sleeping. Even when 
represented as a picture, she desires to captivate with the charms of 
her beauty, and thus to rob men of their steadfast heart. How then 
ought ye to guard yourselves? By regarding her tears and her smiles 
as enemies, her stooping form, her hanging arms, and her 
disentangled hair as toils designed to entrap man's heart. Therefore, 
I say, restrain the heart, give it no unbridled license."
          VISAKHA, a wealthy woman in Savatthi who had many 
children and grandchildren, had given to the order the Pubbarama or 
Eastern Garden, and was the first in Northern Kosala to become a 
matron of the lay sisters.
          When the Blessed One stayed at Savatthi, Visakha went up to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and tendered him an 
invitation to take his meal at her house, which the Blessed One 
accepted. And a heavy rain fell during the night and the next 
morning; and the bhikkhus doffed their robes to keep them dry and 
let the rain fall upon their bodies.
          When on the next day the Blessed One had finished his meal, 
she took her seat at his side and spoke thus: "Eight are the boons, 
Lord, which I beg of the Blessed One."
          Said the Blessed One: "The Tathagatas, O Visakha, grant no 
boons until they know what they are." Visakha replied: "Befitting, 
Lord, and unobjectionable are the boons I ask."
          Having received permission to make known her requests, 
Visakha said: "I desire, Lord, through all my life long to bestow 
robes for the rainy season on the Sangha, and food for incoming 
bhikkhus, and food for outgoing bhikkhus, and food for the sick, 
and food for those who wait upon the sick, and medicine for the sick 
and a constant supply of rice milk for the Sangha, and bathing robes 
for the bhikkhunis, the sisters." Said the Buddha: "But what 
circumstance is it, O Visakha, that thou hast in view in asking these 
eight boons of the Tathagata?"
          Visakha replied: "I gave command, Lord, to my maidservant, 
saying, 'Go, and announce to the brotherhood that the meal is ready.' 
And the maid went, but when she came to the vihara, she observed 
that the bhikkhus had doffed their robes while it was raining, and 
she thought: 'These are not bhikkhus, but naked ascetics letting the 
rain fall on them. So she returned to me and reported accordingly, 
and I had to send her a second time. Impure, Lord, is nakedness, and 
revolting. It was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in 
desiring to provide the Sangha my life long with special garments 
for use in the rainy season.
          "As to my second wish, Lord, an incoming bhikkhu, not being 
able to take the direct roads, and not knowing the place where food 
can be procured, comes on his way tired out by seeking for alms. It 
was this circumstance, Lord, that I had in view in desiring to 
provide the Sangha my life long with food for incoming bhikkhus. 
Thirdly, Lord, an outgoing bhikkhu, while seeking about for alms, 
may be left behind, or may arrive too late at the place whither he 
desires to go, and will set out on the road in weariness.
          "Fourthly, Lord, if a sick bhikkhu does not obtain suitable 
food, his sickness may increase upon him, and he may die. Fifthly, 
Lord, a bhikkhu who is waiting upon the sick will lose his 
opportunity of going out to seek food for himself. Sixthly, Lord, if a 
sick bhikkhu does not obtain suitable medicines, his sickness may 
increase upon him, and he may die.
          "Seventhly, Lord, I have heard that the Blessed One has 
praised rice-milk, because it gives readiness of mind, dispels hunger 
and thirst; it is wholesome for the healthy as nourishment, and for 
the sick as a medicine. Therefore I desire to provide the Sangha my 
life long with a constant supply of rice-milk.
          "Finally, Lord, the bhikkhunis are in the habit of bathing in the 
river Achiravati with the courtesans, at the same landing-place, and 
naked. And the courtesans, Lord, ridicule the bhikkhunis, saying, 
'What is the good, ladies, of your maintaining chastity when you are 
young? When you are old, maintain chastity then; thus will you 
obtain both worldly pleasure and religious consolation.' Impure, 
Lord, is nakedness for a woman, disgusting, and revolting. These 
are the circumstances, Lord, that I had in view."
          The Blessed One said: "But what was the advantage you had in 
view for yourself, O Visakha, in asking the eight boons of the 
          Visakha replied: "Bhikkhus who have spent the rainy seasons 
in various places will come, Lord, to Savatthi to visit the Blessed 
One. And on coming to the Blessed One they will ask, saying: 'Such 
and such a bhikkhu, Lord, has died. What, now, is his destiny?' 
Then will the Blessed One explain that he has attained the fruits of 
conversion; that he has attained arahatship or has entered Nirvana, 
as the case may be.
          "And I, going up to them, will ask, "Was that brother, Sirs, one 
of those who had formerly been at Savatthi?' If reply to me, He has 
formerly been at Savatthi then shall I arrive at the conclusion, For a 
certainty did that brother enjoy either the robes for the rainy season, 
or the food for the incoming bhikkhus, or the food for the outgoing 
bhikkhus, or the food for the sick, or the food for those that wait 
upon the sick, or the medicine for the sick, or the constant supply of 
          "Then will gladness spring up within me; thus gladdened, joy 
will come to me; and so rejoicing all my mind will be at peace. 
Being thus at peace I shall experience a blissful feeling of content; 
and in that bliss my heart will be at rest. That will be to me an 
exercise of my moral sense, an exercise of my moral powers, an 
exercise of the seven kinds of wisdom! This Lord, was the 
advantage I had in view for myself in asking those eight boons of 
the Blessed One."
          The Blessed One said: "It is well, it is well, Visakha. Thou 
hast done well in asking these eight boons of the Tathagata with 
such advantages in view. Charity bestowed upon those who are 
worthy of it is like good seed sown on a good soil that yields an 
abundance of fruits. But alms given to those who are yet under the 
tyrannical yoke of the passions are like seed deposited in a bad soil. 
The passions of the receiver of the alms choke, as it were, the 
growth of merits." And the Blessed One gave this thanks to 
          "O noble woman of an upright life,
          Disciple of the Blessed One, thou givest
          Unstintedly in purity of heart.
          "Thou spreadest joy, assuagest pain,
          And verily thy gift will be a blessing
          As well to many others as to thee."
          WHEN Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, was advanced 
in years, he retired from the world and led a religious life. He 
observed that there were Brahmanical sects in Rajagaha keeping 
sacred certain days, and the people went to their meeting-houses and 
listened to their sermons. Concerning the need of keeping regular 
days for retirement from worldly labors and religious instruction, 
the king went to the Blessed One and said: "The Parivrajaka, who 
belong. to the Titthiya school, prosper and gain adherents because 
they keep the eighth day and also the fourteenth or fifteenth day of 
each half-month. Would it not be advisable for the reverend brethren 
of the Sangha also to assemble on days duly appointed for that 
          The Blessed One commanded the bhikkhus to assemble on the 
eighth day and also on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of each half-
month, and to devote these days to religious exercises.
          A bhikkhu duly appointed should address the congregation and 
expound the Dharma. He should exhort the people to walk in the 
eightfold path of righteousness; he should comfort them in the 
vicissitudes of life and gladden them with the bliss of the fruit of 
good deeds. Thus the brethren should keep the Uposatha. Now the 
bhikkhus, in obedience to the rule laid down by the Blessed One, 
assembled in the vihara on the day appointed, and the people went 
to hear the Dharma, but they were greatly disappointed, for the 
bhikkhus remained silent and delivered no discourse.
          When the Blessed One heard of it, he ordered the bhikkhus to 
recite the Patimokkha, which is a ceremony of disburdening the 
conscience; and he commanded them to make confession of their 
trespasses so as to receive the absolution of the order. A fault, if 
there be one, should be confessed by the bhikkhu who remembers it 
and desires to be cleansed, for a fault, when confessed, shall be light 
on him.
          And the Blessed One said: "The Patimokkha must be recited in 
this way: Let a competent and venerable bhikkhu make the 
following proclamation to the Sangha: "May the Sangha hear me 
Today is Uposatha, the eighth, or the fourteenth or fifteenth day of 
the half-month. If the Sangha is ready, let the Sangha hold the 
Uposatha service and recite the Patimokkha. I will recite the 
Patimokkha.' And the bhikkhus shall reply: 'We hear it well and we 
concentrate well our minds on it, all of us.' Then the officiating 
bhikkhu shall continue: 'Let him who has committed an offense 
confess it; if there be no offense, let all remain silent; from your 
being silent I shall understand that the reverend brethren are free 
from offenses. As a single person who has been asked a question 
answers it, so also, if before an assembly like this a question is 
solemnly proclaimed three times, an answer is expected: if a 
bhikkhu, after a threefold proclamation, does not confess an existing 
offense which he remembers, he commits an intentional falsehood. 
Now, reverend brethren, an intentional falsehood has been declared 
an impediment by the Blessed One. Therefore, if an offense has 
been committed by a bhikkhu who remembers it and desires to 
become pure, the offense should be confessed by the bhikkhu; and 
when it has been confessed, it is treated duly.'"  
          WHILE the Blessed One dwelt at Kosambi, a certain bhikkhu 
was accused of having committed an offense, and, as he refused to 
acknowledge it, the brotherhood pronounced against him the 
sentence of expulsion.
          Now, that bhikkhu was erudite. He knew the Dharma, had 
studied the rules of the order, and was wise, learned, intelligent, 
modest, conscientious, and ready to submit himself to discipline. 
And he went to his companions and friends among the bhikkhus, 
saying: "This is no offense, friends; this is no reason for a sentence 
of expulsion. I am not guilty. The verdict improper and invalid. 
Therefore I consider myself still as a member of the order. May the 
venerable brethren assist me in maintaining my right."
          Those who sided with the expelled brother went to the 
bhikkhus who had pronounced the sentence, saying: "This is no 
offense"; while the bhikkhus who had pronounced the sentence 
replied: "This is an offense." Thus altercations and quarrels arose, 
and the Sangha was divided into two parties, reviling and slandering 
each other.
          All these happenings were reported to the Blessed One. Then 
the Blessed One went to the place where the bhikkhus were who had 
pronounced the sentence of expulsion, and said to them: "Do not 
think, O bhikkhus, that you are to pronounce expulsion against a 
bhikkhu, whatever be the facts of the case, simply by saying: 'It 
occurs to us that it is so, and therefore we are pleased to proceed 
thus against our brother.' Let those bhikkhus who frivolously 
pronounce a sentence against a brother who knows the Dharma and 
the rules of the order, who is learned, wise, intelligent, modest, 
conscientious, and ready to submit himself to discipline, stand in 
awe of causing divisions. They must not pronounce a sentence of 
expulsion against a brother merely because he refuses to see his 
          Then the Blessed One rose and went to the brethren who sided 
with the expelled brother and said to them: "Do not think, O 
bhikkhus, that if you have given offense you need not atone for it, 
thinking: 'We are without offense.' When a bhikkhu has committed 
an offense, which he considers no offense while the brotherhood 
consider him guilty, he should think: 'These brethren know the 
Dharma and the rules of the order; they are learned, wise, 
intelligent, modest, conscientious, and ready to submit themselves to 
discipline; it is impossible that they should on my account act with 
selfishness or in malice or in delusion or in fear.' Let him stand in 
awe of causing divisions, and rather acknowledge his offense on the 
authority of his brethren."
          Both parties continued to keep Uposatha and perform official 
acts independently of one another; and when their doings were 
related to the Blessed One, he ruled that the keeping of Uposatha 
and the performance of official acts were lawful, unobjectionable, 
and valid for both parties. For he said: "The bhikkhus who side with 
the expelled brother form a different communion from those who 
pronounced the sentence. There are venerable brethren in both 
parties. As they do not agree, let them keep Uposatha and perform 
official acts separately."
          And the Blessed One reprimanded the quarrelsome bhikkhus, 
saying to them: "Loud is the voice which worldings make; but how 
can they be blamed when divisions arise also in the Sangha? Hatred 
is not appeased in those who think: 'He has reviled me, he has 
wronged me, he has injured me.' For not by hatred is hatred 
appeased. Hatred is appeased by not-hatred. This is an eternal law.
          "There are some who do not know the need of self-restraint; if 
they are quarrelsome we may excuse their behavior. But those who 
know better, should learn to live in concord. If a man finds a wise 
friend who lives righteously and is constant in his character, he may 
live with him, overcoming all dangers, happy and mindful.
          "But if he finds not a friend who lives righteously and is 
constant in his character, let him rather walk alone, like a king who 
leaves his empire and the cares of government behind him to lead a 
life of retirement like a lonely elephant in the forest. With fools 
there is no companionship. Rather than to live with men who are 
selfish, vain, quarrelsome, and obstinate let a man walk alone."
          And the Blessed One thought to himself: "It is no easy task to 
instruct these headstrong and infatuate fools." And he rose from his 
seat and went away.
          WHILST the dispute between the parties was not yet settled, 
the Blessed One left Kosambi, and wandering from place to place 
he came at last to Savatthi. In the absence of the Blessed One the 
quarrels grew worse, so that the lay devotees of Kosambi became 
annoyed and they said: "These quarrelsome monks are a great 
nuisance and will bring upon us misfortune. Worried by their 
altercations the Blessed One is gone, and has selected another abode 
for his residence. Let us, therefore, neither salute the bhikkhus nor 
support them. They are not worthy of wearing yellow robes, and 
must either propitiate the Blessed One, or return to the world."
          And the bhikkhus of Kosambi, when no longer honored and no 
longer supported by the lay devotees, began to repent and said: "Let 
us go to the Blessed One and let him settle the question of our 
disagreement." Both parties went to Savatthi to the Blessed One. 
And the venerable Sariputta, having heard of their arrival, addressed 
the Blessed One and said: "These contentious, disputatious, and 
quarrelsome bhikkhus of Kosambi, the authors of dissensions, have 
come to Savatthi. How am I to behave, O Lord, toward those 
          "Do not reprove them, Sariputta, said the Blessed One, "For 
harsh words do not serve as a remedy and are pleasant to no one. 
Assign separate dwelling-places to each party and treat them with 
impartial justice. Listen with patience to both parties. He alone who 
weighs both sides is called a muni. When both parties have 
presented their case, let the Sangha come to an agreement and 
declare the re-establishment of concord."
          Pajapati, the matron, asked the Blessed One for advice, and the 
Blessed One said: "Let both parties enjoy the gifts of lay members, 
be they robes or food, as they may need, and let no one receive 
preference over any other."
          The venerable Upali, having approached the Blessed One, 
asked concerning the re-establishment of peace in the Sangha: 
"Would it be right, O Lord, said he, that the Sangha, to avoid further 
disputations, should declare the restoration of concord without 
inquiring into the matter of the quarrel?"
          The Blessed One said: "If the Sangha declares the 
reestablishment of concord without having inquired into the matter, 
the declaration is neither right nor lawful. There are two ways of re-
establishing concord; one is in the letter, and the other one is in the 
spirit and in the letter.
          "If the Sangha declares the re-establishment of concord 
without having inquired into the matter, the peace is concluded in 
the letter only. But if the Sangha, having inquired into the matter 
and having gone to the bottom of it, decides to declare the re-
establishment of concord, the peace is concluded in the spirit and 
also in the letter. The concord re-established in the spirit and in the 
letter is alone right and lawful."
          And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus and told them the 
story of Prince Dighavu, the Long-lived. He said: "In former times, 
there lived at Benares a powerful king whose name was 
Brahmadatta of Kasi; and he went to war against Dighiti, the Long-
suffering, a king of Kosala, for he thought, The kingdom of Kosala 
is small and Dighiti will not be able to resist my armies." And 
Dighiti, seeing that resistance was impossible against the great host 
of the king of Kasi, fled leaving his little kingdom in the hands of 
Brahmadatta; and having wandered from place to place, he came at 
last to Benares, and lived there with his consort in a potter's 
dwelling outside the town.
          "The queen bore him a son and they called him Dighavu. When 
Dighavu had grown up, the king thought to himself: 'King 
Brahmadatta has done us great harm, and he is fearing our revenge; 
he will seek to kill us. Should he find us he will slay all three of us.' 
And he sent his son away, and Dighavu having received a good 
education from his father, applied himself diligently to learn all arts, 
becoming very skillful and wise.
          "At that time the barber of King Dighiti dwelt at Benares, and 
he saw the king, his former master, and being of an avaricious 
nature, betrayed him to King Brahmadatta. When Brahmadatta, the 
king of Kasi, heard that the fugitive king of Kosala and his queen, 
unknown and in disguise, were living a quiet life in a potter's 
dwelling, he ordered them to be bound and executed; and the sheriff 
to whom the order was given seized King Dighiti and led him to the 
place of execution.
          "While the captive king was being led through the streets of 
Benares he saw his son who had returned to visit his parents, and, 
careful not to betray the presence of his son, yet anxious to 
communicate to him his last advice, he cried: 'O Dighavu, my son! 
Be not far-sighted, be not near-sighted, for not by hatred is hatred 
appeased; hatred is appeased by not-hatred only.'
          "The king and queen of Kosala were executed, but Dighavu 
their son bought strong wine and made the guards drunk. When the 
night arrived he laid the bodies of his parents upon a funeral pyre 
and burned them with all honors and religious rites. When King 
Brahmadatta heard of it, he became afraid, for he thought, Dighavu, 
the son of King Dighiti, is a wise youth and he will take revenge for 
the death of his parents. If he espies a favorable opportunity, he will 
assassinate me.'
          "Young Dighavu went to the forest and wept to his heart's 
content. Then he wiped his tears and returned to Benares. Hearing 
that assistants were wanted in the royal elephants' stable, he offered 
his services and was engaged by the master of the elephants. And it 
happened that the king heard a sweet voice ringing through the night 
and singing to the lute a beautiful song that gladdened his heart. 
And having inquired among his attendants who the singer might be, 
was told that the master of the elephants had in his service a young 
man of great accomplishments, and beloved by all his comrades. 
They said He is wont to sing to the lute, and he must have been the 
singer that gladdened the heart of the king.'
          "The king summoned the young man before him and, being 
much pleased with Dighavu, gave him employment in the royal 
castle. Observing how wisely the youth acted, how modest he was 
and yet punctilious in the performance of his work, the king very 
soon gave him a position of trust. Now it came to pass that the king 
went hunting and became separated from his retinue, young 
Dighavu alone remaining with him. And the king worn out from the 
hunt laid his head in the lap of young Dighavu and slept.
          "Dighavu thought: 'People will forgive great wrongs which 
they have suffered, but they will never be at ease about the wrong 
which they themselves have done. They will persecute their victims 
to the bitter end. This King Brahmadatta has done us great injury; he 
robbed us of our kingdom and slew my father and my mother. He is 
now in my power. Thinking thus he unsheathed his sword. Then 
Dighavu thought of the last words of his father. 'Be not far-sighted, 
be not near-sighted. For not by hatred is hatred appeased. Hatred is 
appeased by not-hatred alone.-Thinking thus, he put his sword back 
into the sheath.
          "The king became restless in his sleep and he awoke, and when 
the youth asked, 'Why art thou frightened, O king?' he replied: 'My 
sleep is always restless because I often dream that young Dighavu is 
coming upon me with his sword. While I lay here with my head in 
thy lap I dreamed the dreadful dream again; and I awoke full of 
terror and alarm.' Then the youth, laying his left hand upon the 
defenseless king's head and with his right hand drawing his sword, 
said: 'I am Dighavu, the son of King Dighiti, whom thou hast robbed 
of his kingdom and slain together with his queen, my mother. I 
know that men overcome the hatred entertained for wrongs which 
they have suffered much more easily than for the wrongs which they 
have done, and so I cannot expect that thou wilt take pity on me; but 
now a chance for revenge has come to me.
          "The king seeing that he was at the mercy of young Dighavu 
raised his hands and said: 'Grant me my life, my dear Dighavu, grant 
me my life. I shall be forever grateful to thee.' And Dighavu said 
without bitterness or ill-will: 'How can I grant thee thy life, O king, 
since my life is endangered by thee? I do not mean to take thy life. It 
is thou, O king, who must grant me my life."
          "And the king said: 'Well, my dear Dighavu, then grant me my 
life, and I will grant thee thine.' Thus, King Brahmadatta of Kasi 
and young Dighavu granted each other's life and took each other's 
hand and swore an oath not to do any harm to each other.
          "Then King Brahmadatta of Kasi said to young Dighavu: 'Why 
did thy father say to thee in the hour of his death: "Be not far-
sighted, be not near-sighted, for hatred is not appeased by hatred. 
Hatred is appeased by not-hatred alone,"-what did thy father mean 
by that?'
          "The youth replied: 'When my father, O king, in the hour of his 
death said: 'Be not far-sighted," he meant, Let 'Be not hatred go far. 
And when my father said near-sighted," he meant, be not hasty to 
fall out with thy friends. And when he said For not by hatred is 
hatred appeased; hatred is appeased by not-hatred, he meant this: 
Thou hast killed my father and mother, O king, and if I should 
deprive thee of thy life, then thy partisans in turn would take away 
my life; my partisans again would deprive thine of their lives. Thus 
by hatred, hatred would not be appeased. But now, O king, thou hast 
granted me my life, and I have granted thee thine; thus by not-hatred 
hatred has been appeased.'
          "Then King Brahmadatta of Kasi thought: 'How wise is young 
Dighavu that he understands in its full extent the meaning of what 
his father spoke concisely.' And the king gave him back his father's 
kingdom and gave him his daughter in marriage."
          Having finished the story, the Blessed One said: "Brethren, ye 
are my lawful sons in the faith, begotten by the words of my mouth. 
Children ought not to trample under foot the counsel given them by 
their father; do ye henceforth follow my admonitions. Then the 
bhikkhus met in conference; they discussed their differences in 
mutual good will, and the concord of the Sangha was re-established.
          IT happened that the Blessed One walked up and down in the 
open air unshod. When the elders saw that the Blessed One walked 
unshod, they put away their shoes and did likewise. But the novices 
did not heed the example of their elders and kept their feet covered.
          Some of the brethren noticed the irreverent behavior of the 
novices and told the Blessed One; and the Blessed One rebuked the 
novices and said: "If the brethren, even now, while I am yet living, 
show so little respect and courtesy to one another, what will they do 
when I have passed away?"
          The Blessed One was filled with anxiety for the welfare of the 
truth; and he continued: "Even the laymen, O bhikkhus, who move 
in the world, pursuing some handicraft that they may procure them a 
living, will be respectful, affectionate, and hospitable to their 
teachers. Do ye, therefore, O bhikkhus, so let your light shine forth, 
that ye, having left the world and devoted your entire life to religion 
and to religious discipline, may observe the rules of decency, be 
respectful, affectionate, and hospitable to your teachers and 
superiors, or those who rank as your teachers and superiors. Your 
demeanor, O bhikkhus, does not conduce to the conversion of the 
unconverted and to the increase of the number of the faithful. It 
serves, O bhikkhus, to repel the unconverted and to estrange them. I 
exhort you to be more considerate in the future, more thoughtful and 
more respectful."
          WHEN Devadatta, the son of Suprabuddha and a brother of 
Yasodhara, became a disciple, he cherished the hope of attaining the 
same distinctions and honors as Gotama Siddhattha. Being 
disappointed in his ambitions, he conceived in his heart a jealous 
hatred, and, attempting to excel the Perfect One in virtue, he found 
fault with his regulations and reproved them as too lenient.
          Devadatta went to Rajagaha and gained the ear of Ajatasattu, 
the son of King Bimbisara. And Ajatasattu built a new vihara for 
Devadatta, and founded a sect whose disciples were pledged to 
severe rules and self-mortification.
          Soon afterwards the Blessed One himself came to Rajagaha 
and stayed at the Veluvana vihara. Devadatta called on the Blessed 
One, requesting him to sanction his rules of greater stringency, by 
which a greater holiness might be procured. "The body," he said, 
consists of its thirty-two parts and has no divine attributes. It is 
conceived in sin and born in corruption. Its attributes are liability to 
pain and dissolution, for it is impermanent. It is the receptacle of 
karma which is the curse of our former existences; it is the dwelling 
place of sin and diseases and its organs constantly discharge 
disgusting secretions. Its end is death and its goal the charnel house. 
Such being the condition of the body it behooves us to treat it as a 
carcass full of abomination and to clothe it in such rags only as have 
been gathered in cemeteries or upon dung-hills."
          The Blessed One said: "Truly, the body is full of impurity and 
its end is the charnel house, for it is impermanent and destined to be 
dissolved into its elements. But being the receptacle of karma, it lies 
in our power to make it a vessel of truth and not of evil. It is not 
good to indulge in the pleasures of the body, but neither is it good to 
neglect our bodily needs and to heap filth upon impurities. The lamp 
that is not cleansed and not filled with oil will be extinguished, and 
a body that is unkempt, unwashed, and weakened by penance will 
not be a fit receptacle for the light of truth. Attend to your body and 
its needs as you would treat a wound which you care for without 
loving it. Severe rules will not lead the disciples on the middle path 
which I have taught. Certainly, no one can be prevented from 
keeping more stringent rules, if he sees fit to do so but they should 
not be imposed upon any one, for they are unnecessary."
          Thus the Tathagata refused Devadatta's proposal; and 
Devadatta left the Buddha and went into the vihara speaking evil of 
the Lord's path of salvation as too lenient and altogether 
insufficient. When the Blessed One heard of Devadatta's intrigues, 
he said: "Among men there is no one who is not blamed. People 
blame him who sits silent and him who speaks, they also blame the 
man who preaches the middle path."
          Devadatta instigated Ajatasattu to plot against his father 
Bimbisara, the king, so that the prince would no longer be subject to 
him. Bimbisara was imprisoned by his son in a tower, where he 
died, leaving the kingdom of Magadha to his son Ajatasattu.
          The new king listened to the evil advice of Devadatta, and he 
gave orders to take the life of the Tathagata. However, the 
murderers sent out to kill the Lord could not perform their wicked 
deed, and became converted as soon as they saw him and listened to 
his preaching. The rock hurled down from a precipice upon the 
great Master split in twain, and the two pieces passed by on either 
side without doing any harm. Nalagiri, the wild elephant let loose to 
destroy the Lord, became gentle in his presence; and Ajatasattu, 
suffering greatly from the pangs of his conscience, went to the 
Blessed One and sought peace in his distress.
          The Blessed One received Ajatasattu kindly and taught him the 
way of salvation; but Devadatta still tried to become the founder of 
a religious school of his own. Devadatta did not succeed in his plans 
and having been abandoned by many of his disciples, he fell sick, 
and then repented. He entreated those who had remained with him to 
carry his litter to the Buddha, saying: "Take me, children, take me to 
him; though I have done evil to him, I am his brother-in-law. For the 
sake of our relationship the Buddha will save me." And they obeyed, 
although reluctantly.
          And Devadatta in his impatience to see the Blessed One rose 
from his litter while his carriers were washing their hands. But his 
feet burned under him; he sank to the ground; and, having chanted a 
hymn on the Buddha, died.
          ON one occasion the Blessed One entered the assembly hall 
and the brethren hushed their conversation. When they had greeted 
him with clasped hands, they sat down and became composed. Then 
the Blessed One said: "Your minds are inflamed with intense 
interest; what was the topic of your discussion?"
          And Sariputta rose and spake: "World-honored master, were 
the nature of man's own existence. We were trying to grasp the 
mixture of our own being which is called Name and Form. Every 
human being consists of conformations, and there are three groups 
which are not corporeal. They are sensation, perception, and the 
dispositions; all three constitute consciousness and mind, being 
comprised under the term Name. And there are four elements, the 
earthy element, the watery element, the fiery element, and the 
gaseous element, and these four elements constitute man's bodily 
form, being held together so that this machine moves like a puppet. 
How does this name and form endure and how can it live?"
          Said the Blessed One: "Life is instantaneous and living is 
dying. Just as a chariot-wheel in rolling rolls only at one point of the 
tire, and in resting rests only at one point; in exactly the same way, 
the life of a living being lasts only for the period of one thought. As 
soon as that thought has ceased the being is said to have ceased. As 
it has been said: 'The being of a past moment of thought has lived, 
but does not live, nor will it live. The being of a future moment of 
thought will live, but has not lived, nor does it live. The being of the 
present moment of thought does live, but has not lived, nor will it 
          "As to Name and Form we must understand how they interact. 
Name has no power of its own, nor can it go on of its own impulse, 
either to eat, or to drink, or to utter sounds, or to make a movement. 
Form also is without power and cannot go on of its own impulse. It 
has no desire to eat, or to drink, or to utter sounds, or to make a 
movement. But Form goes on when supported by Name, and Name 
when supported by Form. When Name has a desire to eat, or to 
drink, or to utter sounds, or to make a movement, then Form eats, 
drinks, utters sounds, makes a movement.
          "It is as if two men, the one blind from birth and the other a 
cripple, were desirous of going traveling, and the man blind from 
birth were to say to the cripple as follows: 'See here! I am able to 
use my legs, but I have no eyes with which to see the rough and the 
smooth places in the road.' And the cripple were to say to the man 
blind from birth as follows: 'See here! I am able to use my eyes, but 
I have no legs with which to go forward and back.' And the man 
blind from birth, pleased and delighted, were to mount the cripple 
on his shoulders. And the cripple sitting on the shoulders of the man 
blind from birth were to direct him, saying, 'Leave the left and go to 
the right; leave the right and go to the left.'
          "Here the man blind from birth is without power of his own, 
and weak, and cannot go of his own impulse or might. The cripple 
also is without power of his own, and weak, and cannot go of his 
own impulse or might. Yet when they mutually support one another 
it is not impossible for them to go. In exactly the same way Name is 
without power of its own, and cannot spring up of its own might, 
nor perform this or that action. Form also is without power of its 
own, and cannot spring up of its own might, nor perform this or that 
action. Yet when they mutually support one another it is not 
impossible for them to spring up and go on.
          "There is no material that exists for the production of Name 
and Form; and when Name and Form cease, they do not go any 
whither in space. After Name and Form have ceased, they do not 
exist anywhere, any more than there is heaped-up music material. 
When a lute is played upon, there is no previous store of sound; and 
when the music ceases it does not go any whither in space. When it 
has ceased, it exists nowhere in a stored-up state. Having previously 
been non-existent, it came into existence on account of the structure 
and stern of the lute and the exertions of the performer; and as it 
came into existence so it passes away. In exactly the same way, all 
the elements of being, both corporeal and non-corporeal come into 
existence after having previously been non-existent; and having 
come into existence pass away.
          "There is not a self residing in Name and Form, but the 
cooperation of the conformations produces what people call a man. 
Just as the word 'chariot' is but a mode of expression for axle, 
wheels, the chariot-body and other constituents in their proper 
combination, so a living being is the appearance of the groups with 
the four elements as they are joined in a unit. There is no self in the 
carriage and there is no self in man. O bhikkhus, this doctrine is 
sure and an eternal truth, that there is no self outside of its parts. 
This self of ours which constitutes Name and Form is a combination 
of the groups with the four elements, but there is no ego entity, no 
self in itself.
          "Paradoxical though it may sound: There is a path to walk on, 
there is walking being done, but there is no traveler. There are deeds 
being done, but there is no doer. There is a blowing of the air, but 
there is no wind that does the blowing. The thought of self is an 
error and all existences are as hollow as the plantain tree and as 
empty as twirling water bubbles.
          "Therefore, O bhikkhus, as there is no self, there is no 
transmigration of a self; but there are deeds and the continued effect 
of deeds. There is a rebirth of karma; there is reincarnation. This 
rebirth, this reincarnation, this reappearance of the conformations is 
continuous and depends on the law of cause and effect. Just as a seal 
is impressed upon the wax reproducing the configurations of its 
device, so the thoughts of men, their characters, their aspirations are 
impressed upon others in continuous transference and continue their 
karma, and good deeds will continue in blessings while bad deeds 
will continue in curses.
          "There is no entity here that migrates, no self is transferred 
from one place to another; but there is a voice uttered here and the 
echo of it comes back. The teacher pronounces a stanza and the 
disciple who attentively listens to his teacher's instruction, repeats 
the stanza. Thus the stanza is reborn in the mind of the disciple. The 
body is a compound of perishable organs. It is subject to decay; and 
we should take care of it as of a wound or a sore; we should attend 
to its needs without being attached to it, or loving it. The body is 
like a machine, and there is no self in it that makes it walk or act, 
but the thoughts of it, as the windy elements, cause the machine to 
work. The body moves about like a cart. Therefore 'tis said:
          "As ships are blown by wind on sails,
          As arrows fly from twanging bow,
          So, when the force of thought directs,
          The body, following, must go.
          "Just as machines are worked by ropes,
          So are the body's gear and groove;
          Obedient to the pull of mind,
          Our muscles and our members move.
          "No independent 'I' is here,
          But many gathered mobile forces;
          Our chariot is manned by mind,
          And our karma is our horses.
          "He only who utterly abandons all thought of the ego escapes 
the snares of the Evil One; he is out of the reach of Mara. Thus says 
the pleasure-promising tempter:
          "So long as to those things
          Called 'mine, and 'I' and 'me'
          Your hungry heart still clings-
          My snares you cannot flee.
          "The faithful disciple replies:
          "Naught's mine and naught of me,
          The self I do not mind!
          Thus Mara, I tell thee,
          My path thou canst not find.
          "Dismiss the error of the self and do not cling to possessions 
which are transient, but perform deeds that are good, for deeds are 
enduring and in deeds your karma continues.
          "Since, then, O bhikkhus, there is no self, there can not be any 
after life of a self. Therefore abandon all thought of self. But since 
there are deeds and since deeds continue, be careful with your 
deeds. All beings have karma as their portion: they are heirs of their 
karma; they are sprung from their karma; their karma is their 
kinsman; their karma is their refuge; karma allots beings to 
meanness or to greatness.
          "Assailed by death in life last throes
          On quitting all thy joys and woes
          What is thine own, thy recompense?
          What stays with thee when passing hence?
          What like a shadow follows thee
          And will Beyond thine heirloom be?
          "'Tis deeds, thy deeds, both good and bad;
          Naught else can after death be had.
          Thy deeds are thine, thy recompense;
          They are thine own when going hence;
          They like a shadow follow thee
          And will Beyond thine heirloom be.
          "Let all then here perform good deeds,
          For future weal a treasure store;
          There to reap crops from noble seeds,
          A bliss increasing evermore."  
          THE Blessed One thus addressed the bhikkhus: "It is through 
not understanding the four noble truths, O bhikkhus, that we had to 
wander so long in the weary path of samsara, both you and I.
          "Through contact thought is born from sensation, and is reborn 
by a reproduction of its form. Starting from the simplest forms, the 
mind rises and falls according to deeds, but the aspirations of a 
Bodhisattva pursue the straight path of wisdom and righteousness, 
until they reach perfect enlightenment in the Buddha.
          "All creatures are what they are through the karma of their 
deeds done in former and in present existences.
          "The rational nature of man is a spark of the true light; it is the 
first step on the upward road. But new births are required to insure 
an ascent to the summit of existence, the enlightenment of mind and 
heart, where the immeasurable light of moral comprehension is 
gained which is the source of all righteousness. Having attained this 
higher birth, I have found the truth and have taught you the noble 
path that leads to the city of peace. I have shown you the way to the 
lake of ambrosia, which washes away all evil desire. I have given 
you the refreshing drink called the perception of truth, and he who 
drinks of it becomes free from excitement, passion, and wrong-
          "The very gods envy the bliss of him who has escaped from the 
floods of passion and has climbed the shores of Nirvana. His heart 
is cleansed from all defilement and free from all illusion. He is like 
unto the lotus which grows in the water, yet not a drop of water 
adheres to its petals. The man who walks in the noble path lives in 
the world, and yet his heart is not defiled by worldly desires.
          "He who does not see the four noble truths, he who does not 
understand the three characteristics and has not grounded himself in 
the uncreate, has still a long path to traverse by repeated births 
through the desert of ignorance with its mirages of illusion and 
through the morass of wrong. But now that you have gained 
comprehension, the cause of further migrations and aberrations is 
removed. The goal is reached. The craving of selfishness is 
destroyed, and the truth is attained. This is true deliverance; this is 
salvation; this is heaven and the bliss of a life immortal."
          JOTIKKHA, the son of Subhadda, was a householder living in 
Rajagaha. Having received a precious bowl of sandalwood 
decorated with jewels, he erected a long pole before his house and 
put the bowl on its top with this legend: "Should a samana take this 
bowl down without using a ladder or a stick with a hook, or without 
climbing the pole, but by magic power, he shall receive as reward 
whatever he desires."
          The people came to the Blessed One, full of wonder and their 
mouths overflowing with praise, saying: "Great is the Tathagata. 
His disciples perform miracles. Kassapa, the disciple of the Buddha, 
saw the bowl on Jotikkha's pole, and, stretching out his hand, he 
took it down, carrying it away in triumph to the vihara."
          When the Blessed One heard what had happened, he went to 
Kassapa, and, breaking the bowl to pieces, forbade his disciples to 
perform miracles of any kind.
          Soon after this it happened that in one of the rainy seasons 
many bhikkhus were staying in the Vajji territory during a famine. 
And one of the bhikkhus proposed to his brethren that they should 
praise one another to the householders of the village, saying: "This 
bhikkhu is a saint; he has seen celestial visions; and that bhikkhu 
possesses supernatural gifts; he can work miracles." And the 
villagers said: "It is lucky, very lucky for us, that such saints are 
spending the rainy season with us." And they gave willingly and 
abundantly, and the bhikkhus prospered and did not suffer from the 
          When the Blessed One heard it, he told Ananda to call the 
bhikkhus together, and he asked them: "Tell me, O bhikkhus, when 
does a bhikkhu cease to be a bhikkhu?"
          And Sariputta replied: "An ordained disciple must not commit 
any unchaste act. The disciple who commits an unchaste act is no 
longer a disciple of the Sakyamuni. Again, an ordained disciple 
must not take except what has been given him. disciple who takes, 
be it so little as a penny's worth, is no longer a disciple of the 
Sakyamuni. And lastly, an ordained disciple must not knowingly 
and malignantly deprive any harmless creature of life, not even an 
earthworm or an ant. The disciple who knowingly and malignantly 
deprives any harmless creature of its life is no longer a disciple of 
the Sakyamuni. These are the three great prohibitions."
          And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus and said: "There 
is another great prohibition which I declare to you: An ordained 
disciple must not boast of any superhuman perfection. The disciple 
who with evil intent and from covetousness boasts of a superhuman 
perfection, be it celestial visions or miracles, is no longer a disciple 
of the Sakyamuni. I forbid you, O bhikkhus, to employ any spells or 
supplications, for they are useless, since the law of karma governs 
all things. He who attempts to perform miracles has not understood 
the doctrine of the Tathagata."
          THERE was a poet who had acquired the spotless eye of truth, 
and he believed in the Buddha, whose doctrine gave him peace of 
mind and comfort in the hour of affliction. It happened that an 
epidemic swept over the country in which he lived, so that many 
died, and the people were terrified. Some of them trembled with 
fright, and in anticipation of their fate were smitten with all the 
horrors of death before they died, while others began to be merry, 
shouting loudly, "Let us enjoy ourselves today, for we know not 
whether tomorrow we shall live"; yet was their laughter no genuine 
gladness, but a mere pretense and affectation.
          Among all these worldly men and women trembling with 
anxiety, the Buddhist poet lived in the time of the pestilence, as 
usual, calm and undisturbed, helping wherever he could and 
ministering unto the sick, soothing their pains by medicine and 
religious consolation. And a man came to him and said:
          "My heart is nervous and excited, for I see people die. I am not 
anxious about others, but I tremble because of myself. Help me; 
cure me of my fear."
          The poet replied: "There is help for him who has compassion 
on others, but there is no help for thee so long as thou clingest to 
thine own self alone. Hard times try the souls of men and teach them 
righteousness and charity. Canst thou witness these sad sights 
around thee and still be filled with selfishness? Canst thou see thy 
brothers, sisters, and friends suffer, yet not forget the petty cravings 
and lust of thine own heart? Noticing the desolation in the mind of 
the pleasure-seeking man, the Buddhist poet composed this song 
and taught it to the brethren in the vihara:
          "Unless you take refuge in the Buddha and find rest in 
          Your life is but vanity-empty and desolate vanity.
          To see the world is idle, and to enjoy life is empty.
          The world, including man, is but like a phantom, and the hope 
of heaven is as a mirage.
          "The worldling seeks pleasures, fattening himself like a caged 
          But the Buddhist saint flies up to the sun like the wild crane.
          The fowl in the coop has food but will soon be boiled in the 
          No provisions are given to the wild crane, but the heavens and 
the earth are his.
          The poet said: "The times are hard and teach the people a 
lesson; yet do they not heed it." And he composed another poem on 
the vanity of worldliness:
          "It is good to reform, and it is good to exhort people to reform.
          The things of the world will all be swept away.
          Let others be busy and buried with care.
          My mind all unvexed shall be pure.
          "After pleasures they hanker and find no satisfaction;
          Riches they covet and can never have enough.
          They are like unto puppets held up by a string.
          When the string breaks they come down with a shock.
          "In the domain of death there are neither great nor small;
          Neither gold nor silver is used, nor precious jewels.
          No distinction is made between the high and the low.
          And daily the dead are buried beneath the fragrant sod.
          "Look at the sun setting behind the western hills.
          You lie down to rest, but soon the cock will announce morn.
          Reform today and do not wait until it be too late
          Do not say it is early, for the time quickly passes by.
          "It is good to reform and it is good to exhort people to reform.
          It is good to lead a righteous life and take refuge in the 
Buddha's name.
          Your talents may reach to the skies, your wealth may be 
          But all is in vain unless you attain the peace of Nirvana."
          THE Buddha said: "Three things, O disciples, are 
characterized by secrecy: love affairs, priestly wisdom, and all 
aberrations from the path of truth. Women who are in love, O 
disciples seek secrecy and shun publicity; priests who claim to be in 
possession of special revelation, O disciples, seek secrecy and shun 
publicity; all those who stray from the path of truth, O disciples, 
seek secrecy and shun publicity.
          "Three things, O disciples, shine before the world and cannot 
be hidden. What are the three? The moon, O disciples, illumines the 
world and cannot be hidden; the sun, O disciples, illumines the 
world and cannot be hidden; and the truth proclaimed by the 
Tathagata illumines the world and cannot be hidden. These three 
things, O disciples, illumine the world and cannot be hidden. There 
is no secrecy about them."
          THE Buddha said: "What, my friends, is evil? Killing is evil; 
stealing is evil; yielding to sexual passion is evil; lying is evil; 
slandering is evil; abuse is evil; gossip is evil; envy is evil; hatred is 
evil; to cling to false doctrine is evil; all these things, my friends, are 
          "And what, my friends, is the root of evil? Desire is the root of 
evil; hatred is the root of evil; illusion is the root of evil; these things 
are the root of evil.
          "What, however, is good? Abstaining from killing is good; 
abstaining from theft is good; abstaining from sensuality is good; 
abstaining from falsehood is good; abstaining from slander is good; 
suppression of unkindness is good; abandoning gossip is good; 
letting go all envy is good; dismissing hatred is good; obedience to 
the truth is good; all these things are good.
          "And what, my friend, is the root of the good? Freedom from 
desire is the root of the good; freedom from hatred and freedom 
from illusion; these things, my friends, are the root of the good.
          "What, however, O brethren, is suffering? What is the origin of 
suffering? What is the annihilation of suffering? Birth is suffering; 
old age is suffering; disease is suffering; death is suffering; sorrow 
and misery are suffering; affliction and despair are suffering; to be 
united with loathsome things is suffering; the loss of that which we 
love and the failure in attaining that which is longed for are 
suffering; all these things, O brethren, are suffering.
          "And what, O brethren, is the origin of suffering? It is lust, 
passion, and the thirst for existence that yearns for pleasure 
everywhere, leading to a continual rebirth I It is sensuality, desire, 
selfishness; all these things, O brethren, are the origin of suffering.
          "And what is the annihilation of suffering? The radical and 
total annihilation of this thirst and the abandonment, the liberation, 
the deliverance from passion, that, O brethren, is the annihilation of 
          "And what, O brethren, is the path that leads to the annihilation 
of suffering? It is the holy eightfold path that leads to the 
annihilation of suffering, which consists of right views, right 
decision, right speech, right action, right living, right struggling, 
right thoughts, and right meditation.
          "In so far, O friends, as a noble youth thus recognizes suffering 
and the origin of suffering, as he recognizes the annihilation of 
suffering, and walks on the path that leads to the annihilation of 
suffering, radically forsaking passion, subduing wrath, annihilating 
the vain conceit of the "I-am, leaving ignorance, and attaining to 
enlightenment, he will make an end of all suffering even in this 
          THE Buddha said: "All acts of living creatures become bad by 
ten things, and by avoiding the ten things they become good. There 
are three evils of the body, four evils of the tongue, and three evils 
of the mind.
          "The evils of the body are, murder, theft, and adultery; of the 
tongue, lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk; of the mind, 
covetousness, hatred, and error.
          "I exhort you to avoid the ten evils: 
1. Kill not, but have regard 
for life. 
2. Steal not, neither do ye rob; but help everybody to be 
master of the fruits of his labor. 
3. Abstain from impurity, and lead 
a life of chastity. 
4. Lie not, but be truthful. Speak the truth with 
discretion, fearlessly and in a loving heart. 
5. Invent not evil reports, 
neither do ye repeat them. Carp not, but look for the good sides of 
your fellow-beings, so that ye may with sincerity defend them 
against their enemies. 
6. Swear not, but speak decently and with 
7. Waste not the time with gossip, but speak to the purpose 
or keep silence. 
8. Covet not, nor envy, but rejoice at the fortunes of 
other people. 
9. Cleanse your heart of malice and cherish no hatred, 
not even against your enemies; but embrace all living beings with 
10. Free your mind of ignorance and be anxious to learn 
the truth, especially in the one thing that is needful, lest you fall a 
prey either to scepticism or to errors. Scepticism will make you 
indifferent and errors will lead you astray, so that you shall not find 
the noble path that leads to life eternal."
          THE Blessed One said to his disciples: "When I have passed 
away and can no longer address you and edify your minds with 
religious discourse, select from among you men of good family and 
education to preach the truth in my stead. And let those men be 
invested with the robes of the Tathagata, let them enter into the 
abode of the Tathagata, and occupy the pulpit of the Tathagata.
          "The robe of the Tathagata is sublime forbearance and 
patience. The abode of the Tathagata is charity and love of all 
beings. The pulpit of the Tathagata is the comprehension of the 
good law in its abstract meaning as well as in its particular 
          "The preacher must propound the truth with unshrinking mind. 
He must have the power of persuasion rooted in virtue and in strict 
fidelity to his vows. The preacher must keep in his proper sphere 
and be steady in his course. He must not flatter his vanity by seeking 
the company of the great, nor must he keep company with persons 
who are frivolous and immoral. When in temptation, he should 
constantly think of the Buddha and he will conquer. All who come 
to hear the doctrine, the preacher must receive with benevolence, 
and his sermon must be without invidiousness. The preacher must 
not be prone to carp at others, or to blame other preachers; nor 
speak scandal, nor propagate bitter words. He must not mention by 
name other disciples to vituperate them and reproach their 
          "Clad in a clean robe, dyed with good color, with appropriate 
undergarments, he must ascend the pulpit with a mind free from 
blame and at peace with the whole world. He must not take delight 
in quarrelous disputations or engage in controversies so as to show 
the superiority of his talents, but be calm and composed. No hostile 
feelings shall reside in his heart, and he must never abandon the 
disposition of charity toward all beings. His sole aim must be that 
all beings become Buddhas. Let the preacher apply himself with 
zeal to his work, and the Tathagata will show to him the body of the 
holy law in its transcendent glory. He shall be honored as one whom 
the Tathagata has blessed. The Tathagata blesses the preacher and 
also those who reverently listen to him and joyfully accept the 
          "All those who receive the truth will find perfect 
enlightenment. And, verily, such is the power of the doctrine that 
even by the reading of a single stanza, or by reciting, copying, and 
keeping in mind a single sentence of the good law, persons may be 
converted to the truth and enter the path of righteousness which 
leads to deliverance from evil. Creatures that are swayed by impure 
passions, when they listen to the voice, will be purified. The 
ignorant who are infatuated with the follies of the world will, when 
pondering on the profundity of the doctrine, acquire wisdom. Those 
who act under the impulse of hatred will, when taking refuge in the 
Buddha, be filled with good-will and love.
          "A preacher must be full of energy, and cheerful hope, never 
tiring and never despairing of final success. A preacher must be like 
a man in quest of water who digs a well in an arid tract of land. So 
long as he sees that the sand is dry and white, he knows that the 
water is still far off. But let him not be troubled or give up the task 
as hopeless. The work of removing the dry sand must be done so 
that he can dig down deeper into the ground. And often the deeper 
he has to dig, the cooler and purer and more refreshing will the 
water be. When after some time of digging he sees that the sand be 
comes moist, he accepts it as a token that the water is near. So long 
as the people do not listen to the words of truth, the preacher knows 
that he has to dig deeper into their hearts; but when they begin to 
heed his words he apprehends that they will soon attain 
          "Into your hands, O you men of good family and education 
who take the vow of preaching the words of the Tathagata, the 
Blessed One transfers, intrusts, and commends the good law of 
truth. Receive the good law of truth, keep it, read and re-read it, 
fathom it, promulgate it, and preach it to all beings in all the 
quarters of the universe.
          "The Tathagata is not avaricious, nor narrow-minded, and he is 
willing to impart the perfect Buddha-knowledge unto all who are 
ready and willing to receive it. Do you be like him. Imitate him and 
follow his example in bounteously giving, showing, and bestowing 
the truth. Gather round you hearers who love to listen to the benign 
and comforting words of the law; rouse the unbelievers to accept the 
truth and fill them with delight and joy. Quicken them, edify them, 
and lift them higher and higher until they see the truth face to face in 
all its splendor and infinite glory."
          When the Blessed One had thus spoken, the disciples said: "O 
thou who rejoicest in kindness having its source in compassion, thou 
great cloud of good qualities and of benevolent mind, thou 
quenchest the fire that vexeth living beings, thou pourest out nectar, 
the rain of the law! We shall do, O Lord, what the Tathagata 
commands. We shall fulfill his behest; the Lord shall find us 
obedient to his words."
          And this vow of the disciples resounded through the universe, 
and like an echo it came back from all the Bodhisattvas who are to 
be and will come to preach the good law of Truth to future 
          And the Blessed One said: "The Tathagata is like unto a 
powerful king who rules his kingdom with righteousness, but being 
attacked by envious enemies goes out to wage war against his foes. 
When the king sees his soldiers fight he is delighted with their 
gallantry and will bestow upon them donations of all kinds. Ye are 
the soldiers of the Tathagata, while Mara, the Evil One, is the enemy 
who must be conquered. And the Tathagata will give to his soldiers 
the city of Nirvana, the great capital of the good law. And when the 
enemy is overcome, the Dharma-raja, the great king of truth, will 
bestow upon all his disciples the most precious crown, which jewel 
brings perfect enlightenment, supreme wisdom, and undisturbed 
          THIS is the Dharmapada, the path of religion pursued by those 
who are followers of the Buddha: Creatures from mind their 
character derive; mind-marshaled are they, mind-made. Mind is the 
source either of bliss or of corruption. By oneself evil is done; by 
oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone; by oneself one is 
purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify 
another. You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas are only 
preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the 
bondage of Mara. He who does not rouse himself when it is time to 
rise; who, though young and strong, is full of sloth; whose will and 
thoughts are weak; that lazy and idle man will never find the way to 
          If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; the 
truth guards him who guards himself. If a man makes himself as he 
teaches others to be, then, being himself subdued, he may subdue 
others; one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue. If some men 
conquer in battle a thousand times a thousand men, and if another 
conquer himself, he is the greatest of conquerors. It is the habit of 
fools, be they laymen or members of the clergy, to think, this is done 
by me. May others be subject to me. In this or that transaction a 
prominent part should be played by me." Fools do not care for the 
duty to be performed or the aim to be reached, but think of 
themselves alone. Everything is but a pedestal of their vanity.
          Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what 
is beneficial and good, that is very difficult. If anything is to be 
done, let a man do it, let him attack it vigorously!
          Before long, alas! this body will lie on the earth, despised, 
without understanding, like a useless log; yet our thoughts will 
endure. They will be thought again, and will produce action. Good 
thoughts will produce good actions, and bad thoughts will produce 
bad actions.
          Earnestness is the path of immortality, thoughtlessness the path 
of death. Those who are in earnest do not die; those who are 
thoughtless are as if dead already. Those who imagine they find 
truth in untruth, and see untruth in truth, will never arrive at truth, 
but follow vain desires. They who know truth in truth, and untruth 
in untruth, arrive at truth, and follow true desires. As rain breaks 
through an ill-thatched house, passion will break through an 
unreflecting mind. As rain does not break through a well-thatched 
house, passion will not break through a well-reflecting mind. lead 
the water wherever they like; fletchers bend the arrow; carpenters 
bend a log of wood; wise people fashion themselves; wise people 
falter not amidst blame and praise. Having listened to the law, they 
become serene, like a deep, smooth, and still lake.
          If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him 
as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the wagon. An 
evil deed is better left undone, for a man will repent of it afterwards; 
a good deed is better done, for having done it one will not repent. If 
a man commits a wrong let him not do it again; let him not delight 
in wrongdoing; pain is the outcome of evil. If a man does what is 
good, let him do it again; let him delight in it; happiness is the 
outcome of good.
          Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in his heart, It will not 
come nigh unto me." As by the falling of waterdrops a water-pot is 
filled, so the fool becomes full of evil, though he gather it little by 
little. Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his heart, It will 
not come nigh unto me." As by the falling of water-drops a water-
pot is filled, so the wise man becomes full of good, though he gather 
it little by little.
          He who lives for pleasure only, his senses uncontrolled, 
immoderate in his food, idle, and weak, him Mara, the tempter, will 
certainly overthrow, as the wind throws down a weak tree. He who 
lives without looking for pleasures, his senses well-controlled, 
moderate in his food, faithful and strong, him Mara will certainly 
not overthrow, any more than the wind throws down a rocky 
          The fool who knows his foolishness, is wise at least so far. But 
a fool who thinks himself wise, he is a fool indeed. To the evil-doer 
wrong appears sweet as honey; he looks upon it as pleasant so long 
as it bears no fruit; but when its fruit ripens, then he looks upon it as 
wrong. And so the good man looks upon the goodness of the 
Dharma as a burden and an evil so long as it bears no fruit; but 
when its fruit ripens, then he sees its goodness.
          A hater may do great harm to a hater, or an enemy to an 
enemy; but a wrongly-directed mind will do greater mischief unto 
itself. A mother, a father, or any other relative will do much good; 
but a well-directed mind will do greater service unto itself.
          He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that 
state where his enemy wishes him to be. He himself is his greatest 
enemy. Thus a creeper destroys the life of a tree on which it finds 
          Do not direct thy thought to what gives pleasure, that thou 
mayest not cry out when burning, "This is pain." The wicked man 
burns by his own deeds, as if burnt by fire. Pleasures destroy the 
foolish; the foolish man by his thirst for pleasures destroys himself 
as if he were his own enemy. The fields are damaged by hurricanes 
and weeds; mankind is damaged by passion, by hatred, by vanity, 
and by lust. Let no man ever take into consideration whether a thing 
is pleasant or unpleasant. The love of pleasure begets grief and the 
dread of pain causes fear; he who is free from the love of pleasure 
and the dread of pain knows neither grief nor fear.
          He who gives himself to vanity, and does not give himself to 
meditation, forgetting the real aim of life and grasping at pleasure, 
will in time envy him who has exerted himself in meditation. The 
fault of others is easily noticed, but that of oneself is difficult to 
perceive. A man winnows his neighbor's faults like chaff, but his 
own fault he hides, as a cheat hides the false die from the gambler. 
If a man looks after the faults of others, and is always inclined to 
take offense, his own passions will grow, and he is far from the 
destruction of passions. Not about the perversities of others, not 
about their sins of commission or omission, but about his own 
misdeeds and negligences alone should a sage be worried. Good 
people shine from afar, like the snowy mountains; bad people are 
concealed, like arrows shot by night.
          If a man by causing pain to others, wishes to obtain pleasure 
for himself, he, entangled in the bonds of selfishness, will never be 
free from hatred. Let a man overcome anger by love, let him 
overcome evil by good; let him overcome the greedy by liberality, 
the liar by truth! For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time; 
hatred ceases by not hatred, this is an old rule.
          Speak the truth, do not yield to anger; give, if thou art asked; 
by these three steps thou wilt become divine. Let a wise man blow 
off the impurities of his self, as a smith blows off the impurities of 
silver, one by one, little by little, and from time to time.
          Lead others, not by violence, but by righteousness and equity. 
He who possesses virtue and intelligence, who is just, speaks the 
truth, and does what is his own business, him the world will hold 
dear. As the bee collects nectar and departs without injuring the 
flower, or its color or scent, so let a sage dwell in the community.
          If a traveler does not meet with one who is his better, or his 
equal, let him firmly keep to his solitary journey; there is no 
companionship with fools. Long is the night to him who is awake; 
long is a mile to him who is tired; long is life to the foolish who do 
not know the true religion. Better than living a hundred years not 
seeing the highest truth, is one day in the life of a man who sees the 
highest truth.
          Some form their Dharma arbitrarily and fabricate it artificially; 
they advance complex speculations and imagine that good results 
are attainable only by the acceptance of their theories; yet the truth 
is but one; there are not different truths in the world. Having 
reflected on the various theories, we have gone into the yoke with 
him who has shaken off all sin. But shall we be able to proceed 
together with him?
          The best of ways is the eightfold path. This is the path. There 
is no other that leads to the purifying of intelligence. Go on this 
path! Everything else is the deceit of Mara, the tempter. If you go on 
this path, you will make an end of pain! Says the Tathagata, The 
path was preached by me, when I had understood the removal of the 
thorn in the flesh.
          Not only by discipline and vows, not only by much learning, 
do I earn the happiness of release which no worldling can know. 
Bhikkhu, be not confident as long as thou hast not attained the 
extinction of thirst. The extinction of evil desire is the highest 
          The gift of religion exceeds all gifts; the sweetness of religion 
exceeds all sweetness; the delight in religion exceeds all delights; 
the extinction of thirst overcomes all pain. Few are there among men 
who cross the river and reach the goal. The great multitudes are 
running up and down the shore; but there is no suffering for him 
who has finished his journey.
          As the lily will grow full of sweet perfume and delight upon a 
heap of rubbish, thus the disciple of the truly enlightened Buddha 
shines forth by his wisdom among those who are like rubbish, 
among the people that walk in darkness. Let us live happily then, 
not hating those who hate us! Among men who hate us let us dwell 
free from hatred!
          Let us live happily then, free from all ailments among the 
ailing! Among men who are ailing let us dwell free from ailments! 
Let us live happily, then, free from greed among the greedy! Among 
men who are greedy let us dwell free from greed!
          The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior 
is bright in his armor thinkers are bright in their meditation; but 
among all, the brightest, with splendor day and night, is the Buddha, 
the Awakened, the Holy, Blessed.
          AT one time when the Blessed One was journeying through 
Kosala he came to the Brahman village which is called Manasakata. 
There he stayed in a mango grove. And two young Brahmans came 
to him who were of different schools. One was named Vasettha and 
the other Bharadvaja. And Vasettha said to the Blessed One:
          "We have a dispute as to the true path. I say the straight path 
which leads unto a union with Brahma is that which has been 
announced by the Brahman Pokkharasati, while my friend says the 
straight path which leads unto a union with Brahma is that which 
has been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha. Now, regarding thy 
high reputation, O samana, and knowing that thou art called the 
Enlightened One, the teacher of men and gods, the Blessed Buddha, 
we have come to ask thee, are all these paths salvation? There are 
many roads all around our village, and all lead to Manasakata. Is it 
just so with the paths of the sages? Are all paths to salvation, and do 
they all lead to a union with Brahma?
          Then the Blessed One proposed these questions to the two 
Brahmans: "Do you think that all paths are right?" Both answered 
and said: "Yes, Gotama, we think so."
          "But tell me, continued the Buddha has any one of the 
Brahmans, versed in the Vedas, seen Brahma face to face?" "No 
sir!" was the reply.
          "But, then," said the Blessed One, has any teacher of the 
Brahmans, versed in the Vedas, seen Brahma face to face?" The two 
Brahmans said: "No, sir."
          "But, then," said the Blessed One, has any one of the authors 
of the Vedas seen Brahma face to face?" Again the two Brahmans 
answered in the negative and exclaimed: "How can any one see 
Brahma or understand him, for the mortal cannot understand the 
immortal." And the Blessed One proposed an illustration, saying:
          "It is as if a man should make a staircase in the place where 
four roads cross, to mount up into a mansion. And people should 
ask him, Where, good friends, is this mansion, to mount up into 
which you are making this staircase? Knowest thou whether it is in 
the east, or in the south, or in the west, or in the north? Whether it is 
high, or low, or of medium size?' And when so asked he should 
answer, 'I know it not.' And people should say to him, 'But, then, 
good friend, thou art making a staircase to mount up into something-
taking it for a mansion-which all the while thou knowest not, neither 
hast thou seen it.' And when so asked he should answer, That is 
exactly what I do; yea I know that I cannot know it.' What would 
you think of him? Would you not say that the talk of that man was 
foolish talk?"
          "In sooth, Gotama, said the two Brahmans, it be foolish talk!" 
The Blessed One continued: "Then the Brahmans should say, 'We 
show you the way unto a union with what we know not and what we 
have not seen." This being the substance of Brahman lore, does it 
not follow that their task is vain?"
          "It does follow, replied Bharadvaja.
          Said the Blessed One: "Thus it is impossible that Brahmans 
versed in the three Vedas should be able to show the way to a state 
of union with that which they neither know nor have seen. Just as 
when a string of blind men are clinging one to the other. Neither can 
the foremost see, nor can those in the middle see, nor can the 
hindmost see. Even so, methinks the talk of the Brahmans versed in 
the three Vedas is but blind talk; it is ridiculous, consists of mere 
words, and is a vain and empty thing. Now suppose," added the 
Blessed One that a man should come hither to the bank of the river, 
and, having some business on the other side, should want to cross. 
Do you suppose that if he were to invoke the other bank of the river 
to come over to him on this side, the bank would come on account 
of his praying?"
          "Certainly not, Gotama."
          "Yet this is the way of the Brahmans. They omit the practice of 
those qualities which really make a man a Brahman, and say, 'Indra, 
we call upon thee; Soma, we call upon thee; Varuna, we call upon 
thee; Brahma, we call upon thee.' Verily, it is not possible that these 
Brahmans, on account of their invocations, prayers, and praises, 
should after death be united with Brahma.
          "Now tell me," continued the Buddha, "what do the Brahmans 
say of Brahma? Is his mind full of lust?" And when the Brahmans 
denied this, the Buddha asked: "Is Brahma's mind full of malice, 
sloth, or pride?"
          "No sir!" was the reply. "He is the opposite of all this."
          And the Buddha went on: "But are the Brahmans free from 
these vices?" "No, sir!" said Vasettha.
          The Holy One said: "The Brahmans cling to the five things 
leading to worldliness and yield to the temptations of the senses; 
they are entangled in the five hindrances, lust, malice, sloth, pride, 
and doubt. How can they be united to that which is most unlike their 
nature? Therefore the threefold wisdom of the Brahmans is a 
waterless desert, a pathless jungle, and a hopeless desolation."
          When the Buddha had thus spoken, one of the Brahmans said: 
"We are told, Gotama, that the Sakyamuni knows the path to a union 
with Brahma."
          And the Blessed One said: "What do you think, O Brahmans, 
of a man born and brought up in Manasakata? Would he be in doubt 
about the most direct way from this spot to Manasakata?"
          "Certainly not, Gotama."
          "Thus," replied the Buddha, the Tathagata knows the straight 
path that leads to a union with Brahma. He knows it as one who has 
entered the world of Brahma and has been born in it. There can be 
no doubt in the Tathagata."
          The two young Brahmans said: "If thou knowest the way show 
it to us."
          And the Buddha said: "The Tathagata sees the universe face to 
face and understands its nature. He proclaims the truth both in its 
letter and in its spirit, and his doctrine is glorious in its origin, 
glorious in its progress, glorious in its consummation. The 
Tathagata reveals the higher life in its purity and perfection. He can 
show you the way to that which is contrary to the five great 
hindrances. The Tathagata lets his mind pervade the four quarters of 
the world with thoughts of love. And thus the whole wide world, 
above, below, around, and everywhere will continue to be filled 
with love, far-reaching, grown great, and beyond measure. just as a 
mighty trumpeter makes himself heard-and that without difficulty-in 
all the four quarters of the earth; even so is the coming of the 
Tathagata: there is not one living creature that the Tathagata passes 
by or leaves aside, but regards them all with mind set free, and 
deep-felt love.
          "This is the sign that a man follows the right path: Uprightness 
is his delight, and he sees danger in the least of those things which 
he should avoid. He trains himself in the commands of morality, he 
encompasseth himself with holiness in word and deed; he sustains 
his life by means that are quite pure; good is his conduct, guarded is 
the door of his senses; mindful and self-possessed, he is altogether 
happy. He who walks in the eightfold noble path with unswerving 
determination is sure to reach Nirvana. The Tathagata anxiously 
watches over his children and with loving care helps them to see the 
          "When a hen has eight or ten or twelve eggs, over which she 
has properly brooded, the wish arises in her heart, 'O would that my 
little chickens would break open the eggshell with their claws, or 
with their beaks, and come forth into the light in safety!' yet all the 
while those little chickens are sure to break the egg-shell and will 
come forth into the light in safety. Even so, a brother who with firm 
determination walks in the noble path is sure to come forth into the 
light, sure to reach up to the higher wisdom, sure to attain to the 
highest bliss of enlightenment."
          WHILE the Blessed One was staying at the bamboo grove near 
Rajagaha, he once met on his way Sigala, a householder, who, 
clasping his hands, turned to the four quarters of the world, to the 
zenith above, and to the nadir below. The Blessed One, knowing 
that this was done according to the traditional religious superstition 
to avert evil, asked Sigala: "Why performest thou these strange 
          And Sigala in reply said: "Dost thou think it strange that I 
protect my home against the influences of demons? I know thou 
wouldst fain tell me, O Gotama Sakyamuni, whom people call the 
Tathagata and the Blessed Buddha, that incantations are of no avail 
and possess no saving power. But listen to me and know, that in 
performing this rite I honor, reverence, and keep sacred the words of 
my father."
          Then the Tathagata said: Thou dost well, O Sigala, to honor, 
reverence, and keep sacred the words of thy father; and it is thy duty 
to protect thy home, thy wife, thy children, and thy children's 
children against the hurtful influences of evil spirits. I find no fault 
with the performance of thy father's rite. But I find that thou dost 
not understand the ceremony. Let the Tathagata, who now speaks to 
thee as a spiritual father and loves thee no less than did thy parents, 
explain to thee the meaning of the six directions.
          "To guard thy home by mysterious ceremonies is not 
sufficient; thou must guard it by good deeds. Turn to thy parents in 
the East, to thy teachers in the South, to thy wife and children in the 
West, to thy friends in the North, and regulate the zenith of thy 
religious relations above thee, and the nadir of thy servants below 
thee. Such is the religion thy father wants thee to have, and the 
performance of the ceremony shall remind thee of thy duties."
          And Sigala looked up to the Blessed One with reverence as to 
his father and said: "Truly, Gotama, thou art the Buddha, the 
Blessed One, the holy teacher. I never knew what I was doing, but 
now I know. Thou hast revealed to me the truth that was hidden as 
one who bringeth a lamp into the darkness. I take my refuge in the 
Enlightened Teacher, in the truth that enlightens, and in the 
community of brethren who have been taught the truth."
          AT that time many distinguished citizens were sitting together 
assembled in the town-hall and spoke in many ways in praise of the 
Buddha, of the Dharma, and of the Sangha. Simha, the general-in-
chief, a disciple of the Niggantha sect, was sitting among them. And 
Simha thought: "Truly, the Blessed One must be the Buddha, the 
Holy One. I will go and visit him."
          Then Simha, the general, went to the place where the 
Niggantha chief, Nataputta, was; and having approached him, he 
said: "I wish, Lord to visit the samana Gotama." Nataputta said: 
"Why should you, Simha, who believe in the result of actions 
according to their moral merit, go to visit the samana Gotama, who 
denies the result of actions? The samana Gotama, O Simha, denies 
the result of actions; he teaches the doctrine of non-action; and in 
this doctrine he trains his disciples."
          Then the desire to go and visit the Blessed One, which had 
risen in Simha, the general, abated. Hearing again the praise of the 
Buddha, of the Dharma, and of the Sangha, Simha asked the 
Niggantha chief a second time; and again Nataputta persuaded him 
not to go.
          When a third time the general heard some men of distinction 
extol the merits of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, the 
general thought: "Truly the samana Gotama must be the Holy 
Buddha. What are the Nigganthas to me, whether they give their 
consent or not? I shall go without asking their permission to visit 
him, the Blessed One, the Holy Buddha." And Simha, the general, 
said to the Blessed One: "I have heard, Lord, that the samana 
Gotama denies the result of actions; he teaches the doctrine of non-
action, saying that the actions of sentient beings do not receive their 
reward, for he teaches annihilation and the contemptibleness of all 
things; and in this doctrine he trains his disciples. Teachest thou the 
doing away of the soul and the burning away of man's being? Pray 
tell me, Lord, do those who speak thus say the truth, or do they bear 
false witness against the Blessed One, passing off a spurious 
Dharma as thy Dharma?"
          The Blessed One said "There is a way, Simha, in which one 
who says so, is speaking truly of me; on the other hand, Simha, 
there is a way in which one who says the opposite is speaking truly 
of me, too. Listen, and I will tell thee: I teach, Simha, the not-doing 
of such actions as are unrighteous, either by deed, or by word, or by 
thought; I teach the not-bringing about of all those conditions of 
heart which are evil and not good. However, I teach, Simha, the 
doing of such actions as are righteous, by deed, by word, and by 
thought; I teach the bringing about of all those conditions of heart 
which are good and not evil.
          "I teach, Simha, that all the conditions of heart which are evil 
and not good, unrighteous action by deed, by word, and by thought, 
must be burnt away. He who has freed himself, Simha, from all 
those conditions of heart which are evil and not good, he who has 
destroyed them as a palm-tree which is rooted out, so that they 
cannot grow up again, such a man has accomplished the eradication 
of self.
          "I proclaim, Simha, the annihilation of egotism, of lust, of ill-
will, of delusion. However, I do not proclaim the annihilation of 
forbearance, of love, of charity, and of truth. I deem, Simha, 
unrighteous actions contemptible, whether they be performed by 
deed, or by word, or by thought; but I deem virtue and righteousness 
          Simha said: "One doubt still lurks in my mind concerning the 
doctrine of the Blessed One. Will the Blessed One consent to clear 
the cloud away so that I may understand the Dharma as the Blessed 
One teaches it?"
          The Tathagata having given his consent, Simha continued: "I 
am a soldier, O Blessed One, and am appointed by the king to 
enforce his laws and to wage his wars. Does the Tathagata who 
teaches kindness without end and compassion with all sufferers, 
permit the punishment of the criminal? and further, does the 
Tathagata declare that it is wrong to go to war for the protection of 
our homes, our wives, our children, and our property? Does the 
Tathagata teach the doctrine of a complete self-surrender, so that I 
should suffer the evil-doer to do what he pleases and yield 
submissively to him who threatens to take by violence what is my 
own? Does the Tathagata maintain that all strife, including such 
warfare as is waged for a righteous cause should be forbidden?"
          The Buddha replied: "He who deserves punishment must be 
punished, and he who is worthy of favor must be favored. Yet at the 
same time he teaches to do no injury to any living being but to be 
full of love and kindness. These injunctions are not contradictory, 
for whosoever must be punished for the crimes which he has 
committed, suffers his injury not through the ill-will of the judge but 
on account of his evildoing. His own acts have brought upon him 
the injury that the executer of the law inflicts. When a magistrate 
punishes, let him not harbor hatred in his breast, yet a murderer, 
when put to death, should consider that this is the fruit of his own 
act. As soon as he will understand that the punishment will purify 
his soul, he will no longer lament his fate but rejoice at it."
          The Blessed One continued: "The Tathagata teaches that all 
warfare in which man tries to slay his brother is lamentable, but he 
does not teach that those who go to war in a righteous cause after 
having exhausted all means to preserve the peace are blameworthy. 
He must be blamed who is the cause of war. The Tathagata teaches 
a complete surrender of self, but he does not teach a surrender of 
anything to those powers that are evil, be they men or gods or the 
elements of nature. Struggle must be, for all life is a struggle of 
some kind. But he that struggles should look to it lest he struggle in 
the interest of self against truth and righteousness.
          "He who struggles in the interest of self, so that he himself 
may be great or powerful or rich or famous, will have no reward, 
but he who struggles for righteousness and truth, will have great 
reward, for even his defeat will be a victory. Self is not a fit vessel 
to receive any great success; self is small and brittle and its contents 
will soon be spilt for the benefit, and perhaps also for the curse, of 
others. Truth, however, is large enough to receive the yearnings and 
aspirations of all selves and when the selves break like soap-
bubbles, their contents will be preserved and in the truth they will 
lead a life everlasting.
          "He who goeth to battle, O Simha, even though it be in a 
righteous cause, must be prepared to be slain by his enemies, for 
that is the destiny of warriors; and should his fate overtake him he 
has no reason for complaint. But he who is victorious should 
remember the instability of earthly things. His success may be great, 
but be it ever so great the wheel of fortune may turn again and bring 
him down into the dust. However, if he moderates himself and, 
extinguishing all hatred in his heart lifts his down-trodden adversary 
up and says to him, Come now and make peace and let us be 
brothers, he will gain a victory that is not a transient success, for its 
fruits will remain forever. Great is a successful general, O Simha, 
but he who has conquered self is the greater victor.
          "The doctrine of the conquest of self, O Simha, is not taught to 
destroy the souls of men, but to preserve them. He who has 
conquered self is more fit to live, to be successful, and to gain 
victories than he who is the slave of self. He whose mind is free 
from the illusion of self, will stand and not fall in that battle of life. 
He whose intentions are righteousness and justice, will meet with no 
failure, but be successful in his enterprises and his success will 
endure. He who harbors in his heart love of truth will live and not 
die, for he has drunk the water of immortality. Struggle then, O 
general, courageously; and fight thy battles vigorously, but be a 
soldier of truth and the Tathagata will bless thee."
          When the Blessed One had spoken thus, Simha, the general, 
said: "Glorious Lord, glorious Lord! Thou hast revealed the truth. 
Great is the doctrine of the Blessed One. Thou, indeed, art the 
Buddha, the Tathagata, the Holy One. Thou art the teacher of 
mankind. Thou showest us the road of salvation, for this indeed is 
true deliverance. He who follows thee will not miss the light to 
enlighten his path. He will find blessedness and peace. I take my 
refuge, Lord, in the Blessed One, and in his doctrine, and in his 
brotherhood. May the Blessed One receive me from this day forth 
while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken refuge in him."
          The Blessed One said: "Consider first, Simha, what thou doest. 
It is becoming that persons of rank like thyself should do nothing 
without due consideration."
          Simha's faith in the Blessed One increased. He replied: "Had 
other teachers, Lord, succeeded in making me their disciple, they 
would carry around their banners through the whole city of Vesali, 
shouting: "Simha the general has become our disciple! For the 
second time, Lord, I take my refuge in the Blessed One, and in the 
Dharma, and in the Sangha; may the Blessed One receive me from 
this day forth while my life lasts as a disciple who has taken his 
refuge in him."
          Said the Blessed One: "For a long time, Simha, offerings have 
been given to the Nigganthas in thy house. Thou shouldst therefore 
deem it right also in the future to give them food when they come to 
thee on their alms-pilgrimage." And Simha's heart was filled with 
joy. He said: "I have been told, Lord: 'The samana Gotama says: To 
me alone and to nobody else should gifts be given. My pupils alone 
and the pupils of no one else should receive offerings.' But the 
Blessed One exhorts me to give also to the Nigganthas. Well, Lord, 
we shall see what is seasonable. For the third time, Lord, I take my 
refuge in the Blessed One, and in his Dharma, and in his fraternity."
          THERE was an officer among the retinue of Simha who had 
heard of the discourses of the Blessed One, and there was some 
doubt left in his heart. This man came to the Blessed One and said: 
"It is said, O Lord, that the samana Gotama denies the existence of 
the soul. Do they who say so speak the truth, or do they bear false 
witness against the Blessed One
          And the Blessed One said: "There is a way in which those who 
say so are speaking truly of me; on the other hand, there is a way in 
which those who say so do not speak truly of me. The Tathagata 
teaches that there is no self. He who says that the soul is his self and 
that the self is the thinker of our thoughts and the actor of our deeds, 
teaches a wrong doctrine which leads to confusion and darkness. On 
the other hand, the Tathagata teaches that there is mind. He who 
understands by soul mind, and says that mind exists, teaches the 
truth which leads to clearness and enlightenment."
          The officer said: "Does, then, the Tathagata maintain that two 
things exist? that which we perceive with our senses and that which 
is mental?"
          Said the Blessed One: "I say to thee, thy mind is spiritual, but 
neither is the sense-perceived void of spirituality. The bodhi is 
eternal and it dominates all existence as the good law guiding all 
beings in their search for truth. It changes brute nature into mind, 
and there is no being that cannot be transformed into a vessel of 
          KUTADANTA, the head of the Brahmans in the village of 
Danamati, having approached the Blessed One respectfully, greeted 
him and said: "I am told, O samana, that thou art the Buddha, the 
Holy One, the All-knowing, the Lord of the world. But if thou wert 
the Buddha, wouldst thou not come like a king in all thy glory and 
power?" Said the Blessed One: "Thine eyes are holden. If the eye of 
thy mind were undimmed thou couldst see the glory and the power 
of truth."